Anthro Q2

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lazvertiigo
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310837
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Anthro Q2
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2015-11-05 02:01:57
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anthropology CSUF
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  1. Altered States of Consciousness
    Any mental state that is recognized by the individual or observer as different from a normal state
  2. T/F: 

    In interacting with the supernatural world, an individual may
    have mental experiences that transcend ordinary experiences, such as a trance
    T
  3. Altered states of consciousness can be brought about by a number
    of _____, _____, and ______factors
    physiological, psychological, and pharmaceutical factors
  4. FASTING
    The act of abstaining from eating food and drinking liquids over a period of time: Societal variations and examples; Leads to an alteration in body chemistry; Fasting is often seen as a sacrifice to a deity and often accompanies religious rituals; Is a part of the process of achieving atonement
  5. Pain may be seen as:
    a punishment, consequences of bad karma, purifying, transformative or a source of supernatural power – pain purifies and is used to achieve exorcism
  6. Religious pain is often shared ___
    pain
  7. Stigmata
    Marks on the body in areas that correspond to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus
  8. SACRED PAIN
    Use in rites of passage, including coming-of-age rituals – the ability to withstand pain has become an important element in these rituals
  9. Many rituals use pain that is either _____ or ______
    self-inflicted or inflicted by others
  10. T/F:  

    Pain can also induce a euphoric state and may be related to
    experiences of dissociation or trance
    T
  11. Pain is closely linked to emotion and sense of
    self
  12. Pilgrimages often involve sacred _____
    pain
  13. Sympathetic System
    The arousal system of the brain is driven to higher and higher levels, ultimately becoming overstimulated, such as in situations in which a fast rhythm is being used.When this happens, the brain essentially selectively shuts down
  14. Orientation Association Structure
    One area of the brain that shuts down when overstimulated
  15. This is the part of the brain that enables us to sense the boundaries of our body, to distinguish ourselves from the world around us, and to orient ourselves in space
    Orientation Association Structure
  16. Unitary state
    An altered mental state described by many religious systems in which the divisions between the self and the outside world disappear and one feels as being “one” with the universe or supernatural beings
  17. a key element in the Huichol’s religious practices
    Peyote
  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF A RITUAL SETTING
    Religious drug use takes place only at certain times and in certain contexts, with defined beginning and end points.  The ritual setting channels the experience in important ways
  19. sometimes referred to as the “wisdom weed” or “the holy herb,” is
    seen as a religious sacrament and a way to gain new understandings of self, the
    universe and God
    Ganga
  20. A phenomenon in which a supernatural power, usually in the form
    of spirits or gods, enters the person’s body
    SPIRIT POSESSION
  21. The second common religious interpretation of an altered state of consciousness is....
    that a person has entered a trance state because the soul has left the person’s body
  22. In small scale societies with relatively simple technologies, rituals usually are performed by...
    by most or all of the adult members of the community
  23. In larger and more technologically complex societies we see the
    development of many...
    occupational specializations, including religious specialists
  24. Two major categories used to categorize religious specialists are those of...
    shaman and priest
  25. Shamans
    Receive his or her power directly from the spirit world
  26. BECOMING A SHAMAN
    Shamans are frequently chosen by a spirit; Often the call comes in a dream, trance, or during a particularly difficult time in their lives; Since the task of being a shaman is so difficult and demanding, and the shaman is so marginalized, many individuals do not seek this calling
  27. The success of a shaman lies not in her ability to memorize and
    perform rituals, but in her ability to...
    successfully establish contact and some measure of control over the supernatural
  28. The control of spirit helpers and the ability to enter altered
    states of consciousness are central to...
    the role of shaman
  29. The three worlds are linked by a central vertical axis, often referred to as an
    Axis Mundi
  30. main function of the shaman
    Healing
  31. Tensegrity
    A technique of body movements whose aim is to increase awareness of the energy field that, according to Carlos Castaneda, humans are made of.
  32. Core shamanism
    “The near universal methods of shamanism without a specific cultural perspective,” according to Michael Harner
  33. Neoshamans
    Those who use techniques like those proposed by Castaneda and Harner
  34. Priests
    Full-time religious specialists associated with formalized religious institutions that may be linked with kinship groups, communities, or larger political units and are given religious authority by those units or by formal religious organizations
  35. Okinawan religion sees the world as
    Okinawan religion sees the world as inhabited by a myriad of supernatural beings referred to as kami
  36. The term healer is often used to refer to a priest or shaman, especially...
    when the individual is focused on the curing of illness or injury
  37. Herbalists
    A type of healer that is a specialist in the use of plant and materials for cures
  38. Diviner
    Someone who practices divination, a series of techniques and activities that are used to obtain information about things that are not normally knowable
  39. Prophet
    A mouthpiece of the gods
  40. Refers to methods that somehow interface with the supernatural
    and by which people can bring about particular outcomes
    Magic
  41. It may be used for the public good, although ______ generally are considered evil figures who deal in matters that are downright antisocial
    sorcerers
  42. In the scientific community, science is a methodology for coming to an understanding of our world through objective observations, experimentation, and the development of...
    hypotheses and theories
  43. Science deals only with ________ __________, this is, observations that are made through our sen
    empirical observations
  44. Law of Sympathy
    Magic depends of the apparent association or agreement between things.
  45. There are two parts to the Law of Sympathy:
    Law of Similarity, Law of Contagion
  46. Law of Similarity
    Things that are alike are the same (gives rise to homeopathic magic)
  47. Law of Contagion:
    Things that were once in contact continue to be connected after the connection is severed (gives rise to contagious magic)
  48. HOMEOPATHIC MAGIC:
    Assumes that there is a causal relationship between things that appear to be similar; Similarity can be physical or behavioral; Also called imitative magic
  49. Image Magic:
    The most familiar kind of homeopathic magic, this is the practice of making an image to represent a living person or animal, which can then be killed or injured through doing things to the image
  50. the increase rite of the Australian Aborigines:
    These are essential fertility rituals that function to facilitate the successful reproduction of the totem animal
  51. Doctrine of Signatures:
    The belief that signs telling of a plant’s medical use are somehow embedded within the structure and nature of the plant itself
  52. CONTAGIOUS MAGIC:
    Is based on the premise that things that were once in contact always maintain a connection
  53. The Trobriand Islanders distinguish among three types of knowledge:
    Knowledge of things in the everyday world;

    Knowledge that is more specialized and is shared with a limited number of individuals, including expert knowledge ;

    The highest level includes knowledge of the most complex and valued technological skills
  54. Spell:
    A key component of a magical act is the words that are spoken
  55. Wicca is a Neo-Pagan religion, meaning that it is
    a perceived revival of pre-Christian religious practices
  56. Wiccan magic is based on the worldview that
    there is a power that exists in all things
  57. Divination:
    Techniques for obtaining information about things unknown, including events that will occur in the future
  58. Some forms of divination techniques are
    inspirational and others are noninspirational
  59. Inspirational forms of divination, sometimes referred to as natural
    or emotive divination, involve
    some type of spiritual experience such as a direct contact with a supernatural being through an altered state of consciousness
  60. Noninspirational or artificial forms are more magical ways
    of doing
    divination and include the reading of natural events as well as the manipulation of oracular devices
  61. Divination techniques can be divided into
    fortuitous and deliberate types
  62. Dreams, a common form of divination, are often thought of as
    visits from spirits or visions of journeys taken by one’s soul during sleep
  63. Oneiromancy:
    The interpretation of dreams
  64. Presentiments:
    Feelings that a person experiences
  65. Ornithomancy:
    Refers to reading the path and form of a flight of birds
  66. Apantomancy:
    Refers to a chance meeting with an animal
  67. Haruspication:
    The examination of the entrails of sacrificed animals
  68. Scapulamancy:
    A technique in which a scapula or shoulder blade from an animal skeleton, or even from a human skeleton is dried. Sometimes the question is written on the bone. It is then placed in a fire, and the pattern of burns and cracks is read by a specialist to determine the response
  69. Astrology:
    Based on the belief that all of the stars and planets, as well as the sun and moon, influence the destiny of people
  70. Possession:
    Can be either fortuitous or deliberate
  71. Prophecy:
    Is fortuitous in that the prophet receives information through a vision unexpectedly, without any necessary overt action on the part of the individual
  72. Mediums:
    People who become deliberately possessed due to an overt action that causes them to fall into a trance
  73. ORDEALS:
    Are painful and often life-threatening tests that a person who is suspected of guilt may be forced to undergo
  74. Cleromancy:
    A divination technique popular in ancient Greece that involved casting lots
  75. Soul:
    This term is used to label the noncorporeal, spiritual component of an individual
  76. Transmigration:
    In some religious systems the duration of a soul’s residence after death is finite, and the soul is reborn into the body of an animal
  77. YUP’IK SOULS:
    A religious system in western Alaska that believes in the recycling of souls
  78. YANOMAMÖ SPIRITS AND SOULS:
    Located in the Tropical Forest culture area, they believe in a complex of souls
  79. HMONG SOULS:
    Living in the mountainous regions of Southeast Asia, they believe that a person possesses a number of souls – some sources say as many as thirty
  80. Purgatory:
    Where souls that are in a state of grace but in need of purification go
  81. In Hinduism there is a belief in an
    immortal, eternal soul that is born again and again in different bodies, a process called reincarnation
  82. The Hindu idea or reincarnation is closely tied to
    the concept of karma, which concerns an individual’s actions and the consequences of those actions
  83. Buddhists do not believe in
    an immortal soul or a conscious personality that continues on
  84. What is referred to as a soul, Buddhism conceives of as
    a combination of five mental and physical aggregates
  85. The goal of Buddhism is to extinguish
    desire and craving and escape from the suffering of this life
  86. One possible fate for a soul is that is becomes part of the group
    of
    supernatural beings that are important to the living: ancestors
  87. In case of family misfortune, the family usually turns first to _______, suspecting something wrong with the physical structure of the house – Japan
    geomancy
  88. Ghost:
    A negative force that tends to remain in the vicinity of the community
  89. VAMPIRES:
    Believed to be someone who had recently died but who had returned to bring death to others
  90. The ______ longs for life and envies those who are still alive.
    draugr
  91. BURIAL:
    The most common way of disposing of a body.
  92. THE AFRICAN BURIAL GROUND:
    A cemetery containing the remains of slaves in New York City
  93. SECONDARY BURIALS:
    Funeral rituals sometimes include two burials
  94. MUMMIFICATION:
    To maintain the integrity of the body after death
  95. EXPOSURE:
    Another possibility is to expose the body to the elements or to be consumed by animals
  96. HALLOWEEN:
    The basis of this holiday in an ancient Celtic festival called Samhain
  97. DAY OF THE DEAD:
    A Mexican holiday that is also associated with the Catholic holidays of All Saints Day and All Souls Day on Nov 1 and Nov 2.

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