# Research Ch. 16

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1. What are two examples of description statistics?
• 1. Averages
• 2. Percentages
2. A __________is a descriptive statistic calculated from population data
Parameter
3. The 4 levels of measurement are
• 1. nominal
• 2. ordinal
• 3. interval
• 4. ratio
4. _________ is the lowest level of measurement and involves assigning #'s to classify characteristics into categories. The numbers do not have mathematical meaning
Nominal
5. Give 3 examples of nominal measurements.
• 1. gender
• 2. blood type
• 3. marital status
6. The #'s assigned in nominal measurement a. have or b. do not have quantitative meaning
b. do not have
7. Nominal measurements must be classifiable into 1 and only 1 category. Thus they must be___________ and __________.
For example, 1=married, 2=separated or divorced, 3=widowed.
• mutually exclusive
• collectively exhaustive
8. _________ measurement goes beyond categorization and involves sorting people based on their relative ranking on an attribute
Ordinal
9. In an ordinal measurement, we only know the ________ ranking.
Examples of this type of measurement include: ____ _____
• relative
• frequency counts
• percentages
10. ________ measurement occurs when researchers can specify rank ordering on an attribute and can assume equivalent distance between them
Interval
11. An example of an interval measurement is____
Farenheit Temp scale
12. Interval measurements are more informative than ordinal ones, but they do not convey _______ magnitudes, because there is no rational zero point.
absolute
13. Example of interval measurements is______
psychological and educational testing
14. In _________ measurement we can meaningfullly calculate an average which expands our analytic possibilities
interval
15. ________ measurement is considered the highest level and provides information about ordering on the critical attribute, the intervals between objects, AND the absolute magnitude of the attribute because they have  a rational, meaningful zero.
Ratio
16. An example of a ratio measure is _____
Weight
17. A _________ distribution is a systematic arrangment of values from the lowest to highest, together with a count of the number of times each value was obtained
Frequency
18. Frequency distributions consist of 2 values;
_____ the observed value
______ the frequency of cases at each value
• the x's
• the f's
19. Sum of f's =_____
N (total sample size)
20. Examples of graphs that display interval and ratio level data
Histograms and Frequency polygons
21. Frequency polygons can assume many shapes. A _______ distribution has two equal halves and a _________ distrubution has a peak that is off center and a tail longer on one side than the other.
• symmetric
• skewed
22. When the tail of a skewed distribution points to the right, the distribution is _________.
positively skewed
23. When the tail of the distribtion points to the left, the distribution is _________
negatively skewed
24. Age at death is an example of a ________ skewed attribute.
negatively
25. A ________ distribution has a symmetrical peak.
Normal (Bell Curve or Gaussian distribution)
26. The 3 measures of central tendency is are:
____, ______ and ________
• mean
• median
• mode
27. The _____ is the most frequently occurring score in a central distribution
Mode
28. The ________is the point in a distribution above which and below which 50 % of cases fall.
Median
29. Modes are a quick way to determine a ________ score, but are rather _____
• Popular
• Unstable
30. The ______ is used primarily to describe typical values for nominal-level measures.
Mode
31. The value that divides the cases exactly in half is the ________ for the set of numbers.
Median
32. The ______ is the sum of all scores, divided by the number of scores.
Mean (M) or X (with line over it)
33. Another name for the mean is the ______.
average
34. The ______ is the most widely used measure of central tendency.  It is the most ______because if repeated samples were drawn from a population, means would fluctuate less than modes or medians.
• Mean
• Stable
35. If the goal is to understand what is "typical" in a sample, the _______ may be the best measure of central tendency. As in a the income level of a group.
Median
36. When a distribution is symmetric and unimodal, the three indexes of central tendency _______
coincide
37. In a skewed distribution, the mean , median and mode will _________
Differ
38. In a skewed distribution the mean always pulls in the direction of the long ________
tail
39. The ________ is most suited for nominal measures.
Mode
40. Both the ____ and ____ are suitable for ordinal measures.

(measures of central tendency)
• mode
• median
41. The ________ is appropriate for interval and ration measures.
( a measure of central tendency)
Mean
42. ______ is the measure of how spread out or dispersed the data are.
Variability
43. The _______ is the highest score minus the lowest score.
Range
44. The range is ________ because it is based on only two numbers.
Unstable.
45. _______ is a measure of variability used for interval or ratio-level data. It indicates the average amount of deviation of values from the mean and is calculated in every score.
Standard Deviation
46. A _______ score is the difference between an individual score and the mean.
• Deviation
• x=X- mean
47. If a person weighed 150 lbs and the sample mean were 140. The person's deviation score would be______
+ 10.
48. Deviations above the mean always ______ deviations below the mean, so that the net sum of them is 0.
Balance
49. _______ is the value of the standard deviation before a square root has been taken, and it is a related index of variability.
Variance
50. In a normal or near normal distribution there are roughly ______ SD's above and below the mean.
3.
51. The ______ is a useful variability index for describing a distribution and interpreting individual scores.
Standard Deviation
52. Like the mean, the SD is a _______ estimate of a parameter and is the preferred index of a distribution's __________
• stable
• variability.
 Author: epm49 ID: 310865 Card Set: Research Ch. 16 Updated: 2015-11-03 22:17:39 Tags: Descriptive Folders: Description: Research Ch. 16 Descriptive Statistics Show Answers: