REN R 446 Midterm 2

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  1. Latent heat
    heat transfer through phase change of water: evaporation, condensation, freezing, thawing
  2. sensible heat
    heat transfer through conduction and/or convection from locations at higher temperatures to ones at lower
  3. stored heat
    kinetic energy stored by material (soils, plants, air) measured as temperature
  4. conduction
    movement of heat through a medium (soil, plants, air, water)
  5. convection
    movement of heat with a medium that moves (air, water)
  6. heat capacity
    the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given mass of material by 1°C
  7. Minimum and maximum effective temperatures
    minimum and maximum temperatures at which an organism can conduct normal biological functions indefinitely
  8. optimum temperature
    temperature at which biological functions of an organism proceed most rapidly
  9. Q10
    fractional change in the rate of biological function with a change in temperature of 10°C
  10. vapor concentration
    the concentration of water vapor in the air
  11. vapor pressure
    the partial pressure of water vapor in the air
  12. saturated vapor pressure
    the maximum partial pressure of water vapor that air can hold
  13. vapor pressure defecit
    difference between saturated and ambient vapor pressures
  14. relative humidity
    ratio between ambient and saturated vapor pressures or densities
  15. dewpoint temperature
    the temperature at which water vapor in the air condenses (vapor pressure=saturated vapor pressure)
  16. wet bulb temperature
    the temperature of a surface freely evaporating into the air
  17. latent heat of vaporization
    the energy required to change liquid water into vapor =2460 J g-1
  18. laminar flow
    horizontal air movement with little mixing of air at different altitudes
  19. turbulent flow
    vertical air movement with much mixing of air at different altitudes, necessary for heat transfer
  20. boundary layer
    layer of air within which turbulent mixing occurs
  21. zero plane displacement height
    effective height at which energy is exchanged between a complex surface and the atmosphere
  22. surface roughness length
    index of frictional resistance offered by surface to laminar flow, causing turbulent flow
  23. atmospheric stability
    atmosphere is stable when warmer (less dense) air overlies colder (more dense) air, unstable when colder air overlies warmer air
  24. boundary layer resistance
    resistance of boundary layer to heat transfer (sensible and latent). BL resistance decreases when wind speed and/or surface roughness are greater, and when atmosphere is unstable
  25. convectional precipitation
    precipitation caused when warmer air rises from a land surface and is cooled
  26. orographic precipitation
    precipitation caused when air is forced up over hills or mountains (ex. lots of rain in BC, goes over rocky mountains, rain shadow in AB)
  27. Frontal or Cyclonic precipitation
    precipitation caused when fronts converge and warmer air is forced up over colder air
  28. interception
    retention on precipitation on foliage
  29. infiltration
    movement of water from air into soil
  30. percolation
    movement of water through soil
  31. seepage
    movement of water from soil into geosphere (water table)
  32. evaporation
    movement of water from soil directly to air
  33. transpiration
    movement of water from soil through plants to air
Card Set:
REN R 446 Midterm 2
2015-11-05 23:55:10
climate ecosystems

sections 4-6 inclusive
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