Tongue symmetry is an indication of the integrity of _________.
CN deficits usually indicate a disease affecting the ___________.
brain or CNs
Normal postural reactions require __________, but they have little ________ value.
cortical integration; localizing
What are 3 postural reactions that should routinely be performed on neuro exams?
Proprioception, hopping, tactile positioning
The __________ is NOT involved in conscious proprioceptive reactions.
Decreased or absent spinal reflexes suggest a lesion in the...
sensory or motor component of the reflex arc.
Normal or increased spinal reflexes indicate a lesion...
cranial to the spinal cord segments being tested.
Patellar reflexes are an evaluation of the...
femoral n., L4, L5, L6 spinal cord segments.
Extensor tone in the thoracic limb in controlled by _________ in the _________ segment of the spinal cord.
radial nerve; C7-T1
Flexor reflexes in the thoracic limb are controlled by _________ in the _________ segment of the spinal cord; the ___________ nerve plays an important role in the in the __________ segment of the spinal cord.
all nerves in the brachial plexus; C6-T2; musculocutaneous; C6-C8
Extensor tone in the pelvic limb is controlled by the ________ in the ________ segment of the spinal cord.
femoral n.; L4-L6
The flexor reflex of the lateral digit of the pelvic limb is controlled by the ___________ in the _________ segment of the spinal cord.
sciatic nerve; L6-S1
The flexor reflex of the medial digit of the pelvic limb is controlled by the ___________ in the __________ segment of the spinal cord.
femoral nerve; L4-L6
The motor component of the flexor reflex of the pelvic limb is ALWAYS ALWAYS the ___________; if that is non-functional, there will be no flexor reflex.
The perineal reflex is controlled by the __________ in the _________ segment of the spinal cord.
pudendal n.; S1-S3
The cutaneous trunci reflex is controlled by the ____________ in the _________ segment of the spinal cord.
lateral thoracic n.; C8-T1
Spastic muscle tone is ____________; flaccid muscle tone is _____________.
UMN dysfunction; LMN dysfunction
The cutaneous trunci reflex should be __________.
With the cutaneous trunci reflex, when a cut-off is found, the lesion is typically ______________ to the cutoff point.
2 vertebral bodies cranial
Spinal palpation is used to differentiate...
painful vs non-painful diseases.
With spinal palpation, you should put pressure over the ________ in the ___________ direction.
dorsal root ganglia; cranio-caudal
In what animals do you test nociception?
ONLY paralyzed animals
What is nociception?
"deep pain" perception
How do you test nociception?
squeeze digits with hemostat forceps and look for a behavioral (conscious) response; ie. yelping, trying to bite
________ is a common place to have nerve compression pain; therefore, start cranially so you decrease the likelihood of upsetting the patient at the beginning of the exam.
What is the most reliable reflex?
How do you differentiate b/w flexor reflex and nociception?
with nociception, there is a conscious response, like vocalizing or trying to bite (cortical integration in the brain)