Biology Chapter 16 Terms

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Biology Chapter 16 Terms
2009-12-14 23:25:06
biology ap chapter 16

Biology flash cards for ap chapter 16
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  1. Origins of Replication
    Special sites where DNA replication begins
  2. Replication Forks
    Forks formed when DNA splits when replication origin is discovered
  3. Replication Bubble
    ----<>-----<>----- (two replication bubbles there)
  4. Helicase
    Enzyme that catalyze the Unwinding + Flattening of the DNA half-strands
  5. Single Stranded Binded Protein
    Protein that KEEPS STRANDS APART so that replication can be carried out
  6. DNA Polymerase
    • Enzyme that catalyzes the building of DNA
    • It pulls in + attaches nucleotides to carry out replication
  7. Nucleotide Triphospahte
    • DNA Nucleotide w/ extra bonded Phospherous with Phosphate bonds
    • It provides energy to drive process of building new DNA strands
  8. Antiparallel
    • When 2 DNA half-strands run in opposite directions
    • ALWAYS 5' -> 3'
  9. Leading Strand
    Synthesized continuosly, first
  10. Lagging Strand
    Synthesized in fragment, second
  11. Okazaki Fragments
    Small pieces of DNA that are produced on the lagging strand to complete it
  12. DNA Ligase
    LINKING ENZYME that pastes together spaces inbetween Okazaki Fragments with Covalent Bonds on phosphate-sugar level
  13. Primer
    A short RNA segment that is complimentary to DNA replication and template
  14. Primers are replaced with ___ ___________
    DNA Nucleotides
  15. ____ Primer(s) is needed for the leading strand
  16. ____ Primer(s) is needed for the lagging strand
  17. Primase
    • ENZYME that makes RNA Primers
    • (ase=enzyme)
  18. Mismatch Repair
    A DNA Replication proofreading mechanism that corrects mistakes AS DNA IS MADE
  19. Excision Repair
    A DNA Replication proofreading mechanism that CORRECTS MISTAKES IN EXISTING STRANDS
  20. Summary of DNA Replication Process
    1. Strand Separation

    2. Synthesis of new DNA strands

    3. Attachment + Proofreading