Nutrition exam 3

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Nutrition exam 3
2015-11-15 21:35:46

chapter 8, 9, 10
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  1. what are the functions of water?
    • delivers nutrients and removes waste
    • regulate body temp
    • helps lubricate and cushion joints
    • cushions the fetus (amniotic fluid) 
    • keeps the right/optimal pressure on the retina
  2. what are the differences on water sources (tap/bottled)
    • FDA regulates and tests bottles water
    • EPA regulates and test tap water is tested daily 
    • water bottles - up to 10,000 times the cost of tap water
    • ~25% of bottled water is drawn from the tap
  3. list the major minerals
    • calcium
    • phosphorus 
    • potassium
    • sulfur
    • sodium
    • chloride
    • magnesium
  4. list the minor mineral
    • iron
    • zinc
    • copper 
    • iodine
  5. calcium (Ca)
    • Function: most abundant (99% in bones & teeth; 1% in blood); essential for muscle contraction, including heartbeat 
    • deficiency: osteoporosis
  6. Phosphorus (P)
    • second most abundant mineral
    • functions: bone/teeth- ~85% is confined with Ca; part of DNA and RNA; part of phospholipids; part of ATP (energy)
    • deficiency/toxicity:rare
  7. Magnesium (Mg)
    • role: coenzyme for E metabolism; needed for relaxation of muscles (Ca contracts); resistance to tooth decay; holds Ca in tooth enamel
    • deficiency/toxicity:rare
  8. Sodium (Na)
    • role: major electrolyte; work with K+ to maintain fluid electrolyte balance; muscle contraction; nerve transmission 
    • excess sodium: hypertension (HTN)
  9. Intake recommendation and UL of sodium.
    • adults (19-50 yrs): 1500mg/day
    • adult (51-70yrs): 1300
    • 77% of sodium in our diet is from processed & prepared food
    • 12% natural sources
    • 6% added while eating
    • 5% added while cooking
  10. Potassium (K)
    • role: intracellular mineral; maintain fluid & electrolyte balance; maintain heartbeat
    • deficiency: sudden deaths due to heart failure (fasting; diarrhea (dehydration); eating disorder (anorexia nervosa))
    • toxicity: unknown/rare
  11. Chloride (Cl)
    • role: electrolyte; fluid and electrolyte balance
    • deficiency/toxicity: rare/unknown
  12. Iodine (I)
    • role: component of thyroxine —> hormone made by the thyroid gland responsible for regulation of BMR (metabolism)
    • deficiency: enlarged thyroid (goiter); sluggishness (due to slow/low metabolism); weight gain; severe deficiency during pregnancy(stillbirth, spontaneous abortion,cretinism-extreme irreversible mental retardation)
  13. Iron (Fe)
    • most of the iron in the body is a component of other hemoglobin or myoglobin 
    • roles: needed to make new cells; amino acid, hormones, neurotransmitters 
    • deficiency: iron deficiency anemia
  14. Zinc (Zn)
    • role: wound healing; sperm production; taste perceptions; fetal development; growth and development in children 
    • deficiency: growth retardation and delayed sexual maturation; --mild deficiency: impaired immunity; abnormal taste 
    • toxicity: may reduce blood concentrations of HDL; inhibit iron absorption
  15. Selenium (Se)
    role: antioxidant; low blood selenium (prostate cancer)
  16. Chromium (Cr)
    • role: works closely with insulin to regulate and release energy from glucose 
    • deficiency: impaired insulin (action resulting in a diabetes-ike condition of high blood glucose which resolves with Cr supplementation); supplements cannot cure diabetes; diet high in simple sugars and low in whole, nutrient-dense food deplete the body’s supply of Cr
  17. Body Composition
    • proportion of muscle, bone, fat, and organs, water (control)
    • controlling body composition is more important than controlling body weight 

    percent body fat (man of normal weight: 12-20%, female of normal weight: 20-30%)
  18. what are some risk of being overweight/obese
    HTN, diabetes (type 2) (x3), heart disease, high cholesterol, complications in pregnancy and surgery, flat feet, gallbladder disease, gout, sleep apnea, prostate and breast cancer
  19. central obesity is...
    • fat collecting in the central abdominal area of the body (visceral fat)
    • increases the risk of type II diabetes, stole,HTN, and coronary artery disease 
    • may increase the risk of death from all causes as compared to fat accusations elsewhere in the body
  20. __________ weight for height ration in people 20 years or older
    Body Mass Index (BMI)
  21. when should we not use BMI?
    • athletes
    • children
    • pregnant and lactating women
    • adults over 65
    • teenagers (until growth cessation occurs)
  22. what are the risky waist circumference measurement?
    • men >40 inches
    • women >35 inches
  23. List and define the three components of the body’s energy expenditure (energy “out”).
    • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): involuntary activities 
    • voluntary activities: exercise 
    • thermic effect of food (TEF): 5-10% of a meal’s energy (metabolism)
  24. Identify and explain the factors that affect basal metabolic rate.
    • (Varies from person to person)
    • Age: The BMR is higher in youth, as lean body mass declines with age, the BMR slows.
    • Height: Tall people have a larger surface area, so their BMRs are higher
    • Growth: Children & pregnant women have higher BMRs
    • Body composition: The more lean tissue, the higher the BMR. A typical man has greater lean body mass than a typical woman, making his BMR higher.
    • Fever: raises the BMR
    • Stress: stress hormones raise the BMR
    • Environmental Temp: Adjusting to either heat or cold raises BMR Fasting/starvation: Hormones lower the BMR.
    • Malnutrition: Lowers the BMR
    • Thyroxine: Thyroid hormone is a key BMR regulator
  25. Normal fat % for men and women.
    • Man of normal weight 12%-20%
    • Female of normal weight is 20%-30%
  26. BMI used to define health/body weight/obesity. When should we NOT use BMI?
    • athletes
    • children
    • pregnant and lactating women
    • adults over 65
    • teenagers (until growth cessation occurs)
  27. waist circumference
    • Measures degree of visceral fatness in proportion to body fatness
    • Risky waist measures 40in in men & 35in in women
  28. distinguish what's the difference between  Appetite/hunger/satiety
    • hunger: sensation that signals a physiological need for food
    • appetite: the psychological desire to eat; can be experience without hunger
    • satiety: the perception of fullness that lingers after a meal; suppresses hunger
  29. what are the effects of fasting and energy use during fasting. Why does metabolism slow down during fasting and very-low calorie diets?
    • less than 1 day into the fast: liver glycogen depleted
    • body fat cannot be converted to glucose in early food deprivation
    • Protein (from lean tissue) is broken down and converted to glucose in order to meet the brain’s need fro glucose
  30. describe what is the Female Athlete Triad.
    • Eating disorder:Restrictive dieting (inadequate energy & nutrient intake); Over exercising; Weight loss; Lack of body fat
    • Osteoporosis: Loss of calcium from bones
    • Amenorrhea: Diminished hormones = lack of body fat; no period
    • (Lack of calcium intake & Lack of body fat (diminished hormones) is linked to Osteoporosis)
  31. what are the benefits of fitness?
    • better rest
    • improved bone density
    • protects against osteoporosis
    • stronger immune system
    • lower risk of colon and breast cancer
    • lower risk of cardiovascular disease 
    • lower risk on type 2 DM
    • lower incidence anxiety and depression
    • stronger self-image
    • longer and higher quality of life
  32. Summarize how the body adjusts its fuel mix to respond to physical activity of varying intensity levels.
    • Body uses different mixtures of fuels depending on the intensity & duration of the activity
    • At rest (intensity is low): ~50% of its energy from fatty acids; The rest is from glucose (glycogen)
    • During moderate (aerobic) physical activity:  If activity continues –less muscle glycogen, and more liver glycogen & fat energy (body doesn’t like to run out, body stops moving)
  33. What is “overload”?
    • an extra demand placed on the body
    • an increase in the frequency, duration, intensity, and type of activity
  34. The effects of a high-carbohydrate diet on performance
    • the more glycogen muscles store (up to a point)
    • the longer the physical activity will last
  35. Lactic acid is...
    the breaking down of glucose under aerobic conditions produces
  36. Discuss the effects, if any, of a high-protein diet on athletic performance.
    • builds muscles
    • used for fuel
  37. Protein recommendations for athletes
    • Athletes use amino acids for building muscle tissue and for energy
    • needed for better endurance
  38. Describe the roles that certain vitamins and minerals play in physical performance.
    • vitamin C is needed for the formation of the protein collagen (ligaments)
    • folate and vitamin B12 help bucked red blood cells (increased oxygen)
    • calcium and magnesium help make muscle contract (sodium help relax muscle)
  39. Describe the best way to stay hydrated before and during exercise.