Repro2- Equine Repro Surgery

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  1. The perineum region is bounded by the... (3)
    tailhead, semimembranous muscles, ventral commissure of vulva
  2. The vestibule-tubular tract is from the _________ to the __________, over the _________.
    vulvar labia; transverse fold; external urethral orifice
  3. The vagina is the tract from the __________ to the _________ around the ___________.
    transverse fold; vaginal fornix; cervix
  4. Functional barriers of the perineal anatomy: (3)
    labia of vulva, vestibular sphincter, cervix
  5. What is the vestibular sphincter formed by? (3)
    pelvis floor, constrictor vestibuli m., pillars of hymen
  6. Muscular body containing both the constrictor vulvae mmm. and anal sphincter mm.
    perineal body
  7. ___________ results in a cranial pull on the perineum.
  8. The sphincter is just __________ to the __________.
    cranial; transverse fold of the urethra
  9. Describe Caslick's surgery.
    • lidocaine anesthesia
    • trim off muco-cutaneous junction top 50% of vulva(not too much!)
    • simple continuous closure top 50% of vulva
  10. What is the purpose of a Caslick's surgery?
    to fix mild conformational abnormalities and prevent contamination of the uterine environment
  11. What is the post-op care for Caslick's surgery?
    remove/cut open before natural cover breeding or foaling!
  12. What is the Gadd procedure?
    perineal body reconstruction
  13. What is the goal of the Gadd procedure?
    restore thickness and help the vestibulovaginal apparatus exclude debris and bacteria, prevent pneumo- and urovagina
  14. The perineum is an ___________ with a right angle at the ___________ aspect; it is injured usually in _________ mares.
    isosceles triangle; dorso-caudal; primiparous
  15. Describe a primary perineal laceration/ RV tear.
    vestibular and vaginal mucosa only
  16. Describe a secondary perineal laceration/ RV tear.
    injury involves mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers of perineal body; rectum NOT affected
  17. Describe a tertiary perineal laceration/ RV tears.
    tear through entire perineal body into rectum
  18. What is the success and prognosis for RV repair surgery?
    HIGH failure rate for surgery (send to a good surgeon); if surgery is successful, return to reproduction is very good
  19. What is post-op care of RV repair surgery?
    alter diet so manure is soft, like a cow patty (hard fecal balls will tear through), NSAIDs, TMS
  20. With a fresh tertiary RV tear, what should you do?
    give mare NSAIDs and TMS for ~7 days, and wait 60 days to repair (need scar tissue to place sutures that will actually hold)
  21. Describe the closure of a RV tear repair. (4)
    no tension, evert rectal/anal mucosa into rectum, evert vaginal/vestibular mucosa, 6 bite technique
  22. Goal of RV tear repair surgery?
    to re-establish rectal shelf and perineal body thickness
  23. What is the first critical step of RV tear repair surgery?
    dissecting in horizontal plane to free up scar from lateral walls of vagina/vestibule to reduce tension when pulling sides of shelf together
  24. Possible complications of surgery to repair RV tear? (3)
    constipation, fistula formation, dehiscence
  25. When should you repair a cervical laceration?
    make cow or mare prove she cannot conceive first- short external os tears may do OK without surgery; ALWAYS repair mid-body cervical tears
  26. Reasons for ovariectomy? (2)
    behavior, tumors
  27. 4 ovariectomy procedures?
    colpotomy, laparotomy, ventral midline celiotomy, oblique paramedian celiotomy
  28. What is an extremely important detail of performing a colpotomy?
    go in at 1 o'clock!!!!! if you going in a 3 o'clock you'll cause the horse to bleed out
  29. What are requirements for laparoscopy approach to ovariectomy? (2)
    removal of normal ovaries or tumors <20cm
  30. What is the only muscle you have to divide when performing ovariectomy ventral oblique paramedian approach?
    rectus abdominis
  31. Indications for C-section. (4)
    malpresentation (true breech, schistosoma), existing trauma, dried out uterus, foal too large
  32. What is the goal of C-section?
    preserve mare's reproductive capacity
  33. How do you diagnose uterine rupture? (7)
    fever, endotoxemia, mild colic, abdominal US, abdominal tap, intra-uterine palpation, infuse dye IV then tap
  34. Why would you perform a total hysterectomy in a mare?
    chronic pyometra
  35. Why would do do a partial hysterectomy?
    to restore fertility; masses interfering with normal uterine clearance
  36. Urine pooling occurs when there is...
    cranial slope to vagina or damage to vaginal, causing urine to flow cranially.
  37. How do you repair a urine pooling mare?
    urethral extension surgery
  38. What are mare repro surgeries that you can do in practice? What should you refer?
    • Do: Caslick's, perineal body reconstruction, ovariectomy via colpotomy
    • Refer: third degree perineal lacerations, urethral extensions, ovarian tumor removal
  39. At what age can colts be castrated?
    6 months
  40. Will castration alter a colt's behavior?
    yes if you castrate them young enough... wait too long, maybe not
  41. When can you turn a horse out with the mares after his castration?
    in 1 week
  42. Pre-castration workup?
    make sure both testicles are descended
  43. What should you NOT do if you only find one testicle?
    DO NOT remove descended testicle if you can't find the other testicle
  44. With regard to the testicles, the _________ descends first; this can be a problem because...
    epididymis; if you castrate early and only remove the epididymis, they will be proud cut (testicle produced testosterone).
  45. What is usually the only circumstance under which you do an open castration?
    older stallions with large testicles/cord... bleeding risk
  46. Describe semi-closed castration.
    open the tunic partially just to make sure you have the testicle, and not just the epididymis
  47. What is the purpose of transfixation after castration?
    greatly reduces the risk of evisceration
  48. What's the biggest risk associated with transfixation after castration?
    increased infection- scirrhous cord
  49. What is imperative before performing a standing castration?
    local anesthetic directly into scrotum and testicles (some people say block into the cord- don't listen to them!)
  50. Equine castration complications. (4)
    excessive edema, infection, excessive hemorrhage, eventration
  51. Protrusion of abdominal organs through the abdominal wall.
  52. How do you prevent a horse from swelling after castration?
    exercise!!, stretch incision so it can drain
  53. What should you do if there is excess hemorrhage after castration?
    pack with gauze rolls (not won't find them) and clamp scrotum--> remove the next day and EXERCISE
  54. How is scirrhous cord fixed?
    surgery at a REFERRAL HOSPITAL
  55. Risk factors for eventration? (4)
    older horses, breeds predisposed (draft horses), palpably enlarged inguinal rings, closed vs open (??)
  56. How do you handle an eventration after castration?
    • if not severe compromised- lavage, replace in abdomen, suture scrotum, send to referral
    • if severely compromised- lavage, wrap in damp towel, send to referral
  57. Testis and epididymis are in abdomen, near the kidney or b/w kidney and inguinal ring.
    complete abdominal retention
  58. Epididymis enter the inguinal canal, but testis remains within the abdominal cavity.
    incomplete abdominal retention
  59. Testis b/w internal and external inguinal rings- canicular.
    inguinal testis
  60. How do you diagnose cryptochidism? (4)
    palpation/ US, testosterone, conjugated estrogen, hCG stim
  61. What does "proud cut" mean?
    left an abdominal testicle inside
  62. Should you fix a retained testicle in the field?
    only if you're pretty sure you can feel it in the inguinal ring; send abdominal retention to a referral hospital
  63. Crytorchidectomy techniques. (5)
    inguinal, para-inguinal, flank, paramedian/ventral midline, laparoscopy
  64. Scrotal hernia in adults.
    bowel w/i vaginal tunic around testicle--> testicular enlargement + colic
  65. Inguinal rupture in foals.
    bowel w/i subcutaneous space--> non-reducible swelling +/- colic
  66. What is paraphimosis?
    cannot retract the penis back into the sheath
  67. What is priapism?
    erection that won't go down- fix quickly before it clots
  68. How do you treat priapism? (3)
    anticholinergics, lavage, phallectomy (at referral) if severe damage
  69. How do you treat paraphimosis? (3)
    replace, sling, phallectomy (referral) if severe damage
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Repro2- Equine Repro Surgery
2015-11-06 16:52:33
vetmed repro2

vetmed repro2
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