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How do fungi obtain nutrients?
they release hydrolytic enzymes which break down the cell walls of the compounds, preparing them for absorption
what are the three types of fungi
- decomposer: break down wastes and dead organsisms
- parasitic: absorb host cells
- mutualistic: absorb nutrients from host cells but benefitting the host.
Explain the body structure of fungi
Fungi may be composed of two different types of body plans. Multicellular fungi are composed of filaments whereas single celled fungi are composed of yeasts.
Explain the anatomy of multicellular fungi
- multicellular fungi are composed of a network of tiny filaments called hyphae which gives the fungi it's structure. Hyphae are made out of chitin.
- The entire conglomerate of hyphae is called mycelium which consists of the majority of the fungi body. The mycelium infiltrates the ground and is the source of fungal feeding.
Why are most multicellular fungal body underground?
Mycelium is the main feeding source for fungal body plants. They have a large surface area in order to maximize efficiency since the fungi are mostly sessile
Explain what are mycorrhizal fungi
Mycorrhizal fungi or mycorrhizae are fungi that form mutualistic relationships between fungi and plants. They help plants take in nutrients and water thus maximizes nutrient absorbtion
How are mycorrhizae more efficient than plants in nutrient absorption?
mycorrhizae contain specialized hyphae roots called haustoria which enter into the plant cell and extract/exchange nutrients from the cells.
Describe the reproduction of fungi
fungi reproduce may produce asexually, sexually or both depending on resource availability within the environment. Spores initiate fungal reproduction
What are deuteromycetes
fungi that do not undergo sexual reproduction. Only asexual
describe the stages of fungal reproduction
spores germinate into mycelium whose two cytoplasts then fuse (plasmogamy) into a heterokaryon. Within heterokaryon crossing over occurs and the nuclei fuse together (karyogamy) into a zygote (2n).
Describe the fungi classes and how are they classified.
- fungi are classified based on their sexual reproduction structures
- chytridiomycota: contain flagellated spores called zoospores
- zygomycota: live as parasites and produces a zygosporangium that contains multiple haploid nuclei from two parents after plasmogomy
lichens are fungi that form symbiotic relationships between algae and fungi
- structures that produces spores
- structures that produce gametes.
- structures that contain zygotes
- only found in Zygomycota
a process that occurs during fungi sexual reproduction where cytoplasm fuses to form a heterokaryon. During plasmogamy crossing over occurs
a process that occurs during fungi sexual reproduction where the nuclei fuse forming a diploid zygote
sexual structures: flagellated spores
- endomycorrhizae or arbuscular mycorrhiza is a type of mycorrhiza that penetrates the cell wall of plant roots. Deep penetration aids in nutrient absorbtion
describe ectomycorrhiza and what phylum
- is a type of mycorrhizae that deos not invade the cell wall, but rather forms sheaths of hyphae over the surface of the root.
- usually between woody plants
- Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Zygomycota
- sac fungi
- includes morels, lichens, yeast, penicillin
- saprobic and parasitic
- produces mycotozins that have antibiotic properties
- club fungi
- includes mushrooms
- includes rhizopus
- prominently found in molding fruit and
- little pot fungi
- flagellated sporangium
- the oldest fungi phylum
- leads to the decline of amphibians
- fungi imperfecti
- arbuscular mycorrhizae