Anthropology Test 2
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what is kin group?
anybody who you consider yourself related to
ex. god parents, people you call aunt and uncle even when they are not related to you biologically
What is nuclear family?
family group consisting of a married couple and their offspring, when you move who moves with you
ex. mom, dad, kids living together
what is a household?
group of people living together
a dwelling or compound usually inhabited by consanguineous and affinal relatives
what is extended family?
culturally recognized relatives of varying degrees of distance
what is consanguines?
family related by blood
what is affine?
related because of marriage
ex. father in law
what is monogamy?
having one spouse at a time
what is polygyny?
one man with more than one wife
what is polyandry?
one woman with more than one husband
what are the two types of marriage rules?
- 1. exogamous
- 2. endogamous
what does exogamous mean?
marrying outside the family, marriage rules prohibiting individuals from marrying a member of their own social group or category
what does endogamous mean?
marrying inside the clan, within the group
marriage rules requiring individuals to marry some member of their own social group or category
what is bridewealth?
custom in which a prospective groom and his relatives are required to transfer goods to the relatives of the bride to validate the marriage
husband gives money to the bride
what is the purpose of the bridewealth?
to compensate the loss of labor, because the kids and wife will be a part of the husbands family now
what is a sororate?
custom whereby a widower marries a female relative of his deceased wife
what is bride service?
custom in which a man spends a period of time working for the family of his wife
groom lives for years with the brides family until the family decides he is good enough for them
what is dowry?
custom in which the family of a woman transfers property or wealth to her and/or her husband's family upon her marriage
brides family gives the groom family and the bride still goes off and lives with the grooms family
what is levirate?
custom whereby a widow marries a male relative (usually a brother) of her deceased husband
what type of group uses brideservice?
hunters and gatherers
what are the four negatives that happen to women?
- 1. demand without compensation
- 2. bride burning
- 3. Murdering brides so men can remarry and get more dowry
- 4. threats toward the brides family to give more
what is postmarital residence pattern?
where the majority of newly married couples establish their own residence
what are the 5 postmarital residence patterns?
- 1. patrilocal
- 2. matrilocal
- 3. ambilocal
- 4. biolocal
- 5. neolocal
what is patrilocal residence ?
couples that live with or near the parents of the husband
what is matrilocal residence?
couples live with or near the wife's parents
what is ambilocal residence?
couples may choose to live with eirther the wife's or the husband's kin, roughly half of all couples chose each
what is biolocal residence?
jumping from one family to the other family
what is neolocal residence?
residence form in which a couple establishes a separate household apart from both the husband and wife's parents
what is matrifocal family?
family group consisting of a mother and her children, with a male only loosely attached or not present at all
native americans used this method
female centered living
what is unilineal descent?
descent through "one line"
what are the two types of unilineal descent?
- 1. patrilineal
- 2. matrilineal
what is partilineal descent?
form of a descent in which individuals trace their most important kinship relationships through their fathers
what is matilienal descent?
form of descent in which individuals trace their primary kinship relationships through their mothers
what group uses patrilineal decent?
what group uses matrilineal descent?
what is descent group?
a group whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor
what is unlineal descent group?
a group of relatives, all of whom are related through only one sex
what is lineage?
a unilineal descent group larger than an extended family whose members can actually trace how they are related
what is clan?
a named unilineal descent group, some of whose members are unable to trace how they are related, but who still believe themselves to be kinfolk
what is nonunilineal descent?
form of descent in which individuals do not regularly associate with either matrilineal or patrilineal relatives but make choices about whom to live with, whose land to use and so forth
what is cognatic descent?
form of descent in which relationships may be traced through both females and males
what is cognatic descent group?
a group of relatives created by tracing relationships through both females and males
what are the two types of nonunilineal descent?
what is bilateral descent?
kinship system in which individuals trace their kinship relationships equally through both parents
what's the difference between sex and gender?
sex is based on the genetic differences between male and female while gender is culturally defined
What is nu to the hua culture?
physical substance that can be gained or lost overtime
women have a lot of nu
what is gender stratification?
the degree to which males and females are unequal in dimensions as status, power or influence, access to valued resources, eligibility for social positions, and ability to make decisions about their own lives
what are the five dimensions of gender stratification?
- 1. kinds of social roles men and women perform
- 2. Value placed on contributions to groups
- 3. female deference to males
- 4. access to positions of power and influence
- 5. General beliefs about the sexes
what is the hijra?
- In the indian culture,
- Biological males that are identified neither male or female
- Wear women's clothing
- Identify with the supernatural
- Have genitals removed
What are the two spirits?
- In the Native American culture
- Can be biologically male or female
- Identified as both male and female
- Taking work of the opposite sex and dress
- Have a place and rule in society
What is the Aka group?
How is child care in the Aka group?
- Men play a huge part in child care
- Nurse up to 4 years old
- Have many caregivers
What is the Gusii?
live off of crops and herding livestock
how is childcare for the gusii group?
- Nurse only from 16-20 months
- calm the babies, not a lot of affection
- have older siblings care for the baby
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