Lifespan Development

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ushernettab
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3111
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Lifespan Development
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2009-12-14 22:14:27
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GEN PSYCHOLOGY
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Lifespan Development
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  1. Development
    The systematic physical, cognitive, and social changes in the individual occurring between conception and death
  2. The stages of lifespan
    • Prenatal
    • Infancy
    • Childhood
    • Adolescence
    • Adulthood
  3. Zygote Stage
    The first two weeks of prenatal development, from conception until the zygote implants itself in the uterine wall
  4. Embryonic Stage
    Lasts from the third week of prenatal development through the eighth week
  5. Fetal Stage
    The last and longest stage of prenatal development that extends from the ninth week after conception until birth
  6. Teratogens
    Any disease, drug, or other noxious agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    Physical and Cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant women consuming large quantities of alcohol
  8. Aspirin
    Deficits in intelligence, attention, and motor skill
  9. Antibiotics
    Cataracts, retarded skeletal growth, and premature delivery
  10. Caffeine
    Premature births, lower birth weight, abnormal reflexes, and decreased muscle tone
  11. Cocaine and heroin
    Retarded growth, brain damage, sluggishness, poor attention span, and heart abnormalities
  12. Marijuana
    Lower birth weight and less motor control
  13. Influenza and Schizophrenia
    Increased risk associated with maternal influenza in 2nd trimester of pregnancy. May affect neural subplate, which guides neurons to proper location in fetal brain. Forms about 4th month of pregnancy; disappears almost entirely after birth.
  14. Hearing (Audition)
    During the final two months of pregnancy the fetus is capable of hearing and recognizing sounds
  15. Vision
    At birth vision is not as well developed as hearing, but newborns can follow slowly moving objects, and within a day, begin to show a preference for their mother’s face
  16. Taste and Smell
    At birth, infants have the ability both to taste and smell, making positive and negative facial expressions in response to various odors and preferring sweetness over other tastes
  17. Touch
    Although pain receptors may be less developed, the sense of touch is functional before birth
  18. Infant’s Social Skills
    • Babies turn their heads toward a face at 9 minutes old
    • By 4-6 weeks babies are smiling regularly
  19. Synchrony
    First “conversations” involve babies exchanging nonverbal signals with others in a rhythmic pattern
  20. The brain of an 8-month-old fetus
    has more than twice as many nerve cells as the adult human brain
  21. excess neural production
    is an adaptive means of adjusting neuron number
  22. infants develop and interact
    their environment those neurons not regularly activated and strengthened will grow weak and die
  23. Neural development during the early years of life results in
    • The growth of new dendrites
    • The growth of the myelin sheaths around neural axons
  24. Physical Growth and Motor Development Occur Hand in Hand
    • During the first year of life, the body almost triples in weight and increases in length by about one-third.
    • After the initial growth surge, the rate of childhood growth slows to about 2 to 3 inches and 4 to 7 pounds per year.
    • The ultimate height of a child is largely determined by heredity but can be influenced by environmental factors such as malnutrition.
    • Basic motor skills develop from the head downward to the trunk and legs.
    • Newborns also enter the world equipped with a number of reflexes. Some reflexes are referred to as survival reflexes, while the others are referred to as primitive reflexes.
  25. Survival Reflexes
    Believed to be essential for survival
  26. Primitive Reflexes
    Believed to be holdovers from human evolutionary history that have outlived their usefulness
  27. Attachment
    A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker
  28. Contact Comfort
    In primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact. This contributes to the infant’s first attachment.
  29. Separation Anxiety
    Fear and distress displayed by infants between the ages of 7 and 9 months when separated from their primary caregiver; persists until the age of 2 or 3
  30. Stranger Anxiety
    Fear and distress displayed by infants between the ages of 6 or 7 months when approached by an unfamiliar person; usually subsides during the second year
  31. Strange Situation Test
    A parent-infant “separation and reunion” procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child’s attachment
  32. Secure Attachment
    Believe that they are worthy of others’ love and that people can be trusted
  33. Insecure Attachment
    Believe that they are unworthy love objects, and that others cannot be relied upon
  34. The Parent’s Sensitivity
    Parents who are sensitive and responsive to their children’s needs and emotional signals, and provide a great deal of contact comfort tend to foster secure attachment
  35. Temperament
    The newborn’s temperament will influence the quality of the parent-child response
  36. Culture
    Attachment seems to be influenced by the ideologies of individualism and collectivism and the existence of extended families who may share in child-rearing responsibilities
  37. Five recommendations to counter gender stereotypes
    • Teach by example
    • Monitor use of pronouns such as he and she
    • Monitor children’s entertainment
    • Provide a cross-cultural and historical view of gender
    • Teach children about sexism
  38. Gender Identity
    Understanding of yourself as being male or female.
  39. Gender Typing
    Process by which children learn the interests, traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture
  40. Biological factors
    Early play and toy preferences have a basis in prenatal hormones, genes, or brain organization
  41. Cognitive factors
    Play and toy preferences are based on gender schema (i.e., the knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about what it means to be male or female).
  42. Learning factors
    Play and toy preferences are reinforced by parents, teachers, and peers
  43. Piaget
    Cognitive development consists of mental adaptations to new observations and experiences
  44. Assimilation
    Absorbing new information into existing cognitive structures
  45. Accommodation
    Modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new information
  46. Sensorimotor
    Experiencing the world through actions (grasping, looking, touching, and sucking)
  47. Preoperational
    Representing things with words and images but having no logical reasoning
  48. Concrete operational
    Thinking logically about concrete events; understanding concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
  49. Formal operational
    Abstract reasoning
  50. Vygotsky
    Cognitive development is advanced by guided instruction from someone who is more mentally mature
  51. Private Speech
    Over language that is not directed to others but rather, is self-directed. Private Speech is part of a larger cognitive process known as internalization
  52. Internalization
    A process of cognition in which people absorb knowledge from their social surroundings
  53. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
    The cognitive range between what a child can do on her or his own and what the child can do with the help of adults or more-skilled children
  54. metacognition
    an awareness and understanding of their own cognitive processes.
  55. Power assertion
    Commands, threats, physical force
  56. Love withdrawal
    Verbal disapproval, ridicule, withholding love
  57. Induction
    Reasoning, explanation

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