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The systematic physical, cognitive, and social changes in the individual occurring between conception and death
The stages of lifespan
The first two weeks of prenatal development, from conception until the zygote implants itself in the uterine wall
Lasts from the third week of prenatal development through the eighth week
The last and longest stage of prenatal development that extends from the ninth week after conception until birth
Any disease, drug, or other noxious agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Physical and Cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant women consuming large quantities of alcohol
Deficits in intelligence, attention, and motor skill
Cataracts, retarded skeletal growth, and premature delivery
Premature births, lower birth weight, abnormal reflexes, and decreased muscle tone
Cocaine and heroin
Retarded growth, brain damage, sluggishness, poor attention span, and heart abnormalities
Lower birth weight and less motor control
Influenza and Schizophrenia
Increased risk associated with maternal influenza in 2nd trimester of pregnancy. May affect neural subplate, which guides neurons to proper location in fetal brain. Forms about 4th month of pregnancy; disappears almost entirely after birth.
During the final two months of pregnancy the fetus is capable of hearing and recognizing sounds
At birth vision is not as well developed as hearing, but newborns can follow slowly moving objects, and within a day, begin to show a preference for their mother’s face
Taste and Smell
At birth, infants have the ability both to taste and smell, making positive and negative facial expressions in response to various odors and preferring sweetness over other tastes
Although pain receptors may be less developed, the sense of touch is functional before birth
Infant’s Social Skills
- Babies turn their heads toward a face at 9 minutes old
- By 4-6 weeks babies are smiling regularly
First “conversations” involve babies exchanging nonverbal signals with others in a rhythmic pattern
The brain of an 8-month-old fetus
has more than twice as many nerve cells as the adult human brain
excess neural production
is an adaptive means of adjusting neuron number
infants develop and interact
their environment those neurons not regularly activated and strengthened will grow weak and die
Neural development during the early years of life results in
- The growth of new dendrites
- The growth of the myelin sheaths around neural axons
Physical Growth and Motor Development Occur Hand in Hand
- During the first year of life, the body almost triples in weight and increases in length by about one-third.
- After the initial growth surge, the rate of childhood growth slows to about 2 to 3 inches and 4 to 7 pounds per year.
- The ultimate height of a child is largely determined by heredity but can be influenced by environmental factors such as malnutrition.
- Basic motor skills develop from the head downward to the trunk and legs.
- Newborns also enter the world equipped with a number of reflexes. Some reflexes are referred to as survival reflexes, while the others are referred to as primitive reflexes.
Believed to be essential for survival
Believed to be holdovers from human evolutionary history that have outlived their usefulness
A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker
In primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact. This contributes to the infant’s first attachment.
Fear and distress displayed by infants between the ages of 7 and 9 months when separated from their primary caregiver; persists until the age of 2 or 3
Fear and distress displayed by infants between the ages of 6 or 7 months when approached by an unfamiliar person; usually subsides during the second year
Strange Situation Test
A parent-infant “separation and reunion” procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child’s attachment
Believe that they are worthy of others’ love and that people can be trusted
Believe that they are unworthy love objects, and that others cannot be relied upon
The Parent’s Sensitivity
Parents who are sensitive and responsive to their children’s needs and emotional signals, and provide a great deal of contact comfort tend to foster secure attachment
The newborn’s temperament will influence the quality of the parent-child response
Attachment seems to be influenced by the ideologies of individualism and collectivism and the existence of extended families who may share in child-rearing responsibilities
Five recommendations to counter gender stereotypes
- Teach by example
- Monitor use of pronouns such as he and she
- Monitor children’s entertainment
- Provide a cross-cultural and historical view of gender
- Teach children about sexism
Understanding of yourself as being male or female.
Process by which children learn the interests, traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture
Early play and toy preferences have a basis in prenatal hormones, genes, or brain organization
Play and toy preferences are based on gender schema (i.e., the knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about what it means to be male or female).
Play and toy preferences are reinforced by parents, teachers, and peers
Cognitive development consists of mental adaptations to new observations and experiences
Absorbing new information into existing cognitive structures
Modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new information
Experiencing the world through actions (grasping, looking, touching, and sucking)
Representing things with words and images but having no logical reasoning
Thinking logically about concrete events; understanding concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
Cognitive development is advanced by guided instruction from someone who is more mentally mature
Over language that is not directed to others but rather, is self-directed. Private Speech is part of a larger cognitive process known as internalization
A process of cognition in which people absorb knowledge from their social surroundings
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The cognitive range between what a child can do on her or his own and what the child can do with the help of adults or more-skilled children
an awareness and understanding of their own cognitive processes.
Commands, threats, physical force
Verbal disapproval, ridicule, withholding love
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