Respiratory System Part One

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Author:
DesLee26
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311122
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Respiratory System Part One
Updated:
2015-11-08 11:55:33
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Vertebrates
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Test Three: Seitchik
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Test Three
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  1. What does the respiratory system do?
    allows organisms to take in oxygen and remove CO2
  2. Levels of respiration
    external respiration

    internal respiration

    cellular respiration
  3. external respiration
    exchange of respiratory gases between the medium/ the environment and the respiratory organs
  4. internal respiration
    exchange of respiratory gases between the circulatory system and the body cells
  5. cellular respiration
    the utilization of oxygen and glucose to produce ATP within the cell
  6. Primary organs for respiration
    • external gills
    • internal gills
    • swim bladders
    • skin
    • lungs

    In some, the bucopharyngeal mucosa can be the primary organ for respiration.
  7. What is the bucopharyngeal mucosa?
    It is the mucous membrane inside the oral cavity and pharynx
  8. The only organisms that uses skin to any extent are __. Why?
    the amphibians

    it is their main organ of respiration. Their lungs are very under-developed
  9. The only organisms that uses skin to any extent are __. Why?
    • external gills
    • internal gills
    • swim bladders
    • skin
    • lungs

    In some, the bucopharyngeal mucosa can be the primary organ for respiration.
  10. External gills
    --> present in? 
    --> what they are?
    --> what happens ?
    Present in: larval fish and in some amphibians like the mudpuppy

    What they are: outgrowths of the integument in the pharygeal area that becomes inflitrated with blood capillaries and filamentous material--very thin, fluffy material--where exchange takes place

    What happens: As the animal swims, oxygen moves into the gills and then into the blood capillaries. CO2 moves in the opposite direction
  11. Internal gills
    --> present in? 
    --> what are they?
    • Present in: adult fish
    • What are they: two types= septal and operculor gills
  12. septal gills
    are visible external gill slits in the pharyngeal area (that is why they are called naked

    --> present in chondrichthians
  13. operculor gills
    have a cartilaginous flap called the operculum, covered with skin; it covers the external gill slits; you lift the operculum up in order to see it

    Present in bony fish-- teleosts are advanced bony fish
  14. Swim bladders
    --> present in? 
    --> absent in? 
    --> what it is? 
    --> what they contain?
    AKA: gas bladders

    Present in: only found in osteicthyes-- a species of bony fish

    Absent in: deep sea and bottom-dwelling fish and all chondrichthians

    What it is: appears to be an outpocketing of the last gill slit or of the esophagus

    What they contain: guanine crystals; they are not very vascularized
  15. Swim bladders
    --> What happens is? 
    --> Disadvantage? 
    --> Function?
    What happens: the bladder can be used to create gas in teh bladder and allow the fish to move through depths of water; it can contract or expand according to the ambient pressure in the water and is therefore used for buoyancy--to move up or down into teh water

    Disadvantage: can't allow the fish to rise really fast because it would lead to bursting of the bladder

    Function: buoyancy
  16. Because chondrichthyes don't have swim bladders, how do they manage?
    They control depth of swimming through stored fats
  17. What might be different betwen the septal and operculum?
    What might be different is the septum. 

    Septal septum is much longer. Opercular gill is much smaller
  18. In the chondrichthyes, what you see is __.

    Beyond the ___are __. What are they?
    a spiracle located above the gill region that allows for water movement

    spiracle; five gill slits

    Internal open in the walls of the pharynx; external gill slits open to the outside
  19. Chondrichthyes gill slits continued. 

    --> first gill slit? 

    --> last gill slit?
    --> Anterior wall of the first gill slit may or may not have the gill lamellae or filamentous material

    --> Posterior wall of the last gill slit may or may not have the gill lamellae or filamentous material
  20. In chondrichthyes, the septum is __

    In operculum gills, there is __ and the __ ends in the __.
    long and extends beyond the gill region 

    no spiracle; interbrachial septum; gill region
  21. A whole gill is called a __; and what does it consist of?
    hulobranch

    • 1) gill raker
    • 2) gill ray
    • 3) gill filaments or lamellae
  22. Gill raker
    1)At the pharyngeal wall is a gill raker (little lever of cartilage that helps prevent food from getting into the food region; covers over slits)
  23. Gill ray
    1)Cartilaginous structure that extends through the holobranch and gives structure to the holobranch= gill ray (provides structure to the gill)
  24. Gill filaments/ lamellae
    1)On either side of that is the filamentous material, which is actually the gill filaments or lamellae, which are highly vascularized; and, exchange takes place between the capillaries and the filamentous material on both sides of the septum
  25. Half of the holobranch is a __: it would just be one side of it
    hemi- or demibranch:
  26. Spaces between the holobranchs are called __ 

    Gill raker is __ 

    Gill ray runs through the __, which is between the __.
    parabranchial chambers

    continuous with the gill ray

    septum

    demibranchs

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