GU HA Musculoskeletal

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Author:
MeganM
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311123
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GU HA Musculoskeletal
Updated:
2015-11-09 10:48:55
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GU Health Assessment Seidel
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GU,HA
Description:
Ch 21
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  1. The femoral stretch test or hip extension test is used to detect ________.
    inflammation at L1, L2, L3, or L4.
  2. Temporomandibular joint consists of articulation b/w the ______ and ______ bone in the cranium.
    • mandible
    • temporal
  3. The ______ vertebrae are the most mobile.
    cervical
  4. Three _____ reduce friction in the hip.
    bursae
  5. What type of joint is the hip?
    ball-and-socket
  6. _________ ligaments give medial and lateral stability to the knee.
    Collateral
  7. The _______ ligament protects the knee from hyperextension.
    anterior cruciate
  8. The knee is a _____ joint.
    hinge
  9. _________ are stronger than bone until adolescence; therefore, injuries to long bones and joints are more likelh to result in _____ than sprains.
    • Ligaments
    • fractures
  10. Why do adolescents have a greater potential for injury?
    Rapid growth = decreased strength in the epiphysis and overall decreased strength & flexibility.
  11. When is bone growth complete?
    • 20 yo
    • when last epiphysis closes
  12. When is peak bone mass achieved?
    35 yo
  13. Increased hormone levels in pregnancy contribute to the ______ of ligaments and _____ of the cartilage in the pelvis at 12-20 wks.
    • elasticity
    • softening
  14. For menopausal women, decreased estrogen increases bone ______ and decreases ______.
    • resorption
    • calcium deposition
  15. Which bones are particularly vulnerable to the loss of bone density?
    • long bones
    • vertebrae
  16. _______ bones may become predisposed to fractures in older adults.
    weight-bearing
  17. What happens to collagen, CT, and tendons in older adults?
    • increased collagen collects and then
    • fibrosis of CT
    • tendons become less elastic
  18. What is the result of changes in collagen CT, and tendons in older adults?
    reduced muscle mass, tone, and strength
  19. Associated events with joint symptoms.
    • time of day
    • activity, specific movements
    • injury
    • strenuous activity
    • weather
  20. Temporal factors affecting joint symptoms.
    • change in frequency or character of episodes
    • better or worse as day progresses
    • nature of onset (slow or rapid)
  21. Precipitating factors to muscular symptoms
    • injury, strenuous activity
    • sudden movement, stress
  22. Associated events of skeletal symptoms.
    • injury, recent freactures
    • strenuous activity, sudden movement, stress
    • *Postmenopause*
  23. Two important things to ask about injury?
    • sensation at time of injury (click, pop, tearing, numbness, etc)
    • mechanism of injury (direct truama, overuse, sudden change of direction, etc)
  24. ________ occurs after injury to a muscle's motor neuron.
    fasciculation
  25. _______ wasting occurs after injury as a result of pain, disease of the muscle, or damage to the motor neuron.
    Muscle wasting
  26. Palpate _____ last.
    inflamed joints
  27. _______ can be felt when two irregular bony surfaces rub together as a joint moves.
    Crepitus
  28. Crepitus can be felt when two rough edges of a ____ bone rub together or with movement of a ______ when tenosynovitis is present.
    • broken
    • tendon
  29. Passive ROM often exceeds active ROM by ____ degrees.
    5
  30. When are active and passive ROM equal.
    between contralateral joints
  31. Discrepancies b/w active and passive ROM may indicate what?
    • true muscle weakness OR
    • joint disorder
  32. What is used to precisely measure the angle when a joint appears to have an increase or limitation in its ROM?
    goniometer
  33. Evaluating the strength of each muscle group is considered part of which exam?
    Neuro
  34. Disability is present when muscle strength is graded at what level?
    3 or less
  35. Where is the thenar eminence?
    • on the thumb side of the hand
    • (a central depression)
  36. Deviation to the _____ side and _____ or boutonnière deformities of the fingers usually indicates RA.
    • ulnar 
    • swan neck
  37. The metacarphphalangeal joints are palpated with _______.
    both thumbs.
  38. Palpate the wrist and radiocarpal groove with your ______ on the dorsal surface and _______ on the palmar aspect of the wrist.
    • thumb
    • fingers
  39. A firm mass over the dorsum of the wrist may be a ________.
    ganglion
  40. Bony overgrowths in the distal interphalangeal joints, felt as hard, nontender nodules (2-3mm) are associated with _________.
    • osteoarthritis
    • (sometimes encompass entire joint)
  41. Where are Heberden nodes located?
    DISTAL interphalangeal joints
  42. Where are Bouchard nodes located?
    PROXIMAL interphalangeal joints
  43. Cystic, round, nontender swellings along tendon sheaths or joint capsules that are more prominent with flexion may indicate _______.
    ganglia
  44. Subcutaneous nodules along pressure points of the ulnar surface may indicate __________.
    RA or Gouty Tophi
  45. Cubitus valgus is a ____ angle exeeding 15 degrees; cubitus varus is a ______ carrying angle.
    • lateral
    • medial
  46. What should you expect with a boggy, soft, or fluctuant swelling and increased pain with pronation and supination of the elbow?
    • epicondylitis OR
    • tendonitis
  47. The curve of the thoracic spine should be ______; the curve of the lumbar spine should be ____.
    • convex
    • concave
  48. Major landmarks of the hips.
    • iliac crest
    • greater trochanter of femur
  49. What is FABER?
    • Test used to assess hips
    • Flex, ABduct, Externally Rotate
  50. The angle b/w the femur and tibia is expected to be ?
    less than 15 degrees
  51. What is genu valium?
    knock knees
  52. What is genu varum?
    bow legs
  53. Excessive hyperextension of the knee with wt bearing (genu recurvatum) may indicate what?
    weakness of quads
  54. What may fullness in the popliteal space indicate?
    Baker cyst
  55. What is pos varus?
    in-toeing
  56. What is pes valgus?
    out-toeing
  57. What is pes planus?
    • common variation of the foot 
    • foot remains flat even when not bearing weight
  58. What is pes cavus?
    • common variation
    • high instep
    • may be associated w/ claw toes
  59. A persistently thickened achilles tendon may indicate _______ that can develop with spondyloarthritis or from ______.
    • tendonitis
    • xanthelasma of hyperlipidemia
  60. What should you do if the pt reports pain, numbness, and/or tingling in their hands or wrist? Why?
    • Ask to mark specific locations on the Katz hand diagram
    • Certain patterns are assoc with carpal tunnel
  61. Three tests assoc with carpal tunnel syndrome.
    • Thumb abduction
    • Phalen test
    • Tinel Sign
  62. Two tests to assess for rotator cuff inflammation.
    • Neer test
    • Hawkins test
  63. What is the straight legh raising test used to test?
    • Nerve root irritation or
    • lumbar disk herniation
    • (L4, L5, S1)
  64. The ________ test is used to detect inflammation
    femoral stretch (or hip extension)
  65. The ________ test is used to detect flexion contractures of the hip athat may be masked by excessive lumbar lordosis.
    Thomas
  66. Lifting the extended leg off the examining table indicates a ________ contracture in the extended leg.
    hip flexion
  67. The ________ test is used to detect weak hip abductor muscles.
    Trendelenburg
  68. _________ is used to determine the presence of excess fluid or an effusion in the knee.
    Ballottement
  69. The bulge sign is used to determine what?
    presence of excess fluid in the knee
  70. The ______ test is used to detect a torn medial or lateral meniscus.
    McMurray
  71. The _______ test is used to identify instability of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments .
    drawer
  72. The ______ test is used to evaluate the anterior cruciate ligament integrity.
    Lachman
  73. What does varus mean?
    aBduction
  74. What does valgus mean?
    ADduction
  75. Laxity as varus force is used against the ankle indicates injury to the ________ ligament.
    lateral collateral
  76. Laxity when valgus force is placed against the ankle indicates injury to the _______ ligament.
    medial collateral
  77. What does the Barlow-Ortolani maneuver detect?
    hip dislocation or subluxation in newborns
  78. The feet of a toddler will often pronate slightly inward until about _______ of age.
    30 months
  79. The W or reverse tailor position places stress on the joints of the hips, knees, and ankles and is commonly seen in children with _________ associated with femoral anteversion.
    in-toeing
  80. Genu varum is a commin finding up to what age?
    18 mos
  81. Genu valgum (knock-knee) is a common finding at what ages?
    b/w 2-4 yo
  82. What contributes to the "waddling" of pregnancy?
    increased mobility & instability of sacroiliac joints & symphysis pubis
  83. Pregnant women can experience pain down into the inner thigh when standing from _______.
    pubic symphysis
  84. Why might the head of an older adult tilt backward?
    to compensate for the increased thoracic curvature.
  85. Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum and facet joints that results in narrowing of the spinal canal.
    Lumbar stenosis
  86. Herniated lumbar disc that irritates the corresponding nerve root
    Lumbosacral radiculopathy
  87. ________ nodes are at the DISTAL interphalangeal joints.
    Heberden
  88. ________ nodes are at the PROXIMAL interphalangeal joints.
    Bouchard
  89. Duration of stiffness in RA compared to OA.
    • RA: at least an hour or longer
    • OA: few minutes
  90. Four things evaluated on a muscled strength test.
    • Strength
    • Symmetry
    • Equality
    • Resistance
  91. Two tests for rotator cuff.
    • Neer (internally rotate & forward flex arm at the shoulder: presses supraspinatus muscle against anteroinferior acromion)
    • Hawkins (Forward flexing shoulder to 90 degrees, flexing elbow to 90 degrees, and then internally rotating arm to its limit)

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