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Amphibians can be both __ and __. Some of them can have __ and __.
- air and land
- gills and lungs combined
Larynx: portion of respiratory system where voice is produced in most vertebrates and it is the entrance into the respiratory system
-It is cartilaginous in structure and it contains the vocal cords, which are for voice production
What we are looking at is __.
The main tube, which we call the __, is the __, which leads from the __. They become __, which branch down into each lung. The number of lungs is equal to the __
a series of tubes outside and inside of the lungs
larynx down into the lung area
the number of primary bronchi.
It is important that the trachea and primary bronchi __ and __. Part of their anatomy is that there are __.
- remain open
- are prevented from collapsing
- cartilaginous structures in the trachea and bronchi
Trachea and Branches in Amphibians
the tubes have cartilage plates (little pieces of cartilage in the tube) that prevent collapse; they are embedded in the wall
Trachea and Branches in Reptiles
: have either plates like amphibians or incomplete rings—C-shaped cartilages—where the opening is the dorsal surface, held by muscle. It’s also mammals. The exception is crocodiles–Crocodiles have complete rings
Trachea and Branches in Birds
the trachea also has plates in it and has two primary bronchi, called mesobronchi
Difference in birds is dramatic. They don’t have the same structure that other vertebrates have
What is different about the bronchi in all vertebrates except birds?
in all vertebrates except birds, the primary bronchi enter the lungs and divide into smaller bronchial tubes; as the tubes get smaller, the amount of cartilage decreases so that the smallest tubes have no cartilage. At the end of the smallest tubes is where you have the structure for gas exchange, which is called the alveolus or phalvill