Zoonotic3- Lepto

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Zoonotic3- Lepto
2015-11-09 18:31:50
vetmed zoonotic3

vetmed zoonotic3
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  1. Leptospirosis 
    • Spirochaetales
    • Leptospiraceae
    • Leptospira
  2. Rats/ small rodents are long-term reservoirs for... (3) [serovars]
    icterohaemorrhagiae, grippotyphosa, autumnalis
  3. Swine are long-term carriers for... (3) [serovars]
    pomona, bratislava, icterohaemorrhagiae
  4. Cattle are long-term carriers for... (2) [serovars]
    hardjo, pomona
  5. Dogs are long-term carrier for... (1) [serovar]
  6. Raccoons and skunks are long-term carriers for... (3) [serovars]
    grippotyphosa, pomona, autumnalis
  7. Deep and opposums are long-term carriers for... (1) [serovar]
  8. Are humans a reservoir for Lepto?
  9. If the serovar is adapted to the host, there is _________ infection in the _________, leading to... (2)
    subclinical; maintenance host; long-term shedding and low antibody titers.
  10. If the serovar is not adapted to the host, there is __________ or __________ in the __________, leading to... (2)
    subclinical infection; disease; incidental host; short=term shedding and high antibody titers.
  11. What are the most common serovars associated with disease if domestic animals and humans? (3)
    icterohaemorrhagiae, grippotyphosa, and autumnalis
  12. Occurrence in Ohio was over 80% _____________ [serovar].
  13. Modes of transmission of Lepto. (5)
    Direct contact or exposure of contaminated urine, mucous membranes, abraded skin; vertical transmission (animals only); indirect contact with contaminated water or mud
  14. In the U.S., Lepto is a(n) __(3)__ zoonoses.
    occupational, outdoor, and recreational
  15. Occupations at risk for contraction of Lepto. (4)
    farmers, animal caretakers/vets, mine/sewer workers, slaughter plant workers
  16. How is Lepto a recreational zoonoses?
    pet ownership
  17. What time of year are Lepto infections more common?
    August thru November
  18. In humans and non-adapted hosts, Lepto has an incubation period of _________, a leptospiremic phase of _________, and a Leptospiruria phase of _________.
    2-30days [10]; hours-9 days; <30 days
  19. In adapted hosts, Lepto has an incubation period of _________, a leptospiremic phase of _________, and a Leptospiruria phase of _________.
    2-30 days [10]; 4-9days; weeks/months/years/lifetime
  20. Describe the Leptospiremic phase. (2)
    multiplication in the vascular space, dissemination to many organs: liver, spleen, CNS, eyes, genitals, and kidneys
  21. Describe the Leptospiruria phase. (2)
    kidney colonization, expulsion of Leptospira in the urine
  22. Subclinical serovar in bovines and its manifestation.
    hardjo; inferility problems
  23. Acute form of lepto in cattle and its manifestations. (5)
    pomona; high fever, pulmonary congestion, hemoglobinuria, agalactia, jaundice
  24. Chronic form of Lepto in bovines and its manifestations. (4)
    hardjo; fetal infection and abortion, reproductive problems, subclinical infections
  25. In canines, the majority of Lepto infections are _________.
  26. In canines with clinical Lepto infection, there is a(n) _________ that lasts 3-4 days; clinical signs include... (5)
    acute febrile; hemorrhage in oral cavity, pharyngitis, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, jaundice, and acute nephritis.
  27. What serovar(s) is/are humans susceptible to?
    in general, any serovar
  28. What are the forms of human disease?
    anicteric form, icteric form
  29. Describe the mild symptoms of the anicteric form of human disease. (5)
    high fever, headache, myalgias, chills, vomiting and diarrhea
  30. Describe the severe symptoms of the anicteric form of human disease. (6)
    high fever, headache, respiratory disease, severe myalgias, conjunctiva suffusion, hepatomegaly
  31. Which form of human disease is more severe?
    icteric form
  32. Describe the symptoms of the icteric form of human disease. (7)
    meningitis, rash, haemolytic anemia, renal failure, widespread hemorrhages, liver failure, jaundice
  33. The icteric form of human disease is known as _________, and fatality can be up to ________.
    Weil's disease; 20%
  34. Is there cross protection between Lepto serovars?
  35. How do you confirm diagnosis of Lepto? (3)
    Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), isolation from blood (first 7 days) or CSF (4-10days) during acute illness, isolation of Leptospiras in urine after the day 10
  36. What is imperative when manipulating urinary catheters or when cleaning urine of a Lepto patient?
    protective eye wear and a face mask- aerozolization of urine is possible
  37. Describe patient management with suspect lepto.
    any dog with renal failure should be managed as a Lepto patient (PPE, etc) until an alternate diagnosis has been made
  38. Describe housing of Lepto patients in the hospital.
    housing in isolation is not necessary as Lepto is not readily transmitted b/w dogs
  39. What is the purpose of placing a u cath in a Lepto patient?
    to prevent urinary contamination in the event of urinary incontinence
  40. How should you clean areas contaminated with urine?
    :1: aqueous solution of 10% bleach
  41. What is something very important to inform owners of Lepto patients?
    should be advised to wash their hands after handling their pets
  42. How should a dog be treated before being sent home?
    treated dogs represent a low risk to household members- treat with penicillin or doxycycline (5mg/kg PO BID 14 days) (decreases shedding)
  43. Why shouldn't you pressure wash areas where Lepto patients were?
    can aerosolize urine