Card Set Information
Rats/ small rodents are long-term reservoirs for... (3) [serovars]
icterohaemorrhagiae, grippotyphosa, autumnalis
Swine are long-term carriers for... (3) [serovars]
pomona, bratislava, icterohaemorrhagiae
Cattle are long-term carriers for... (2) [serovars]
Dogs are long-term carrier for... (1) [serovar]
Raccoons and skunks are long-term carriers for... (3) [serovars]
grippotyphosa, pomona, autumnalis
Deep and opposums are long-term carriers for... (1) [serovar]
Are humans a reservoir for Lepto?
If the serovar is adapted to the host, there is _________ infection in the _________, leading to... (2)
subclinical; maintenance host; long-term shedding and low antibody titers.
If the serovar is not adapted to the host, there is __________ or __________ in the __________, leading to... (2)
subclinical infection; disease; incidental host; short=term shedding and high antibody titers.
What are the most common serovars associated with disease if domestic animals and humans? (3)
icterohaemorrhagiae, grippotyphosa, and autumnalis
Occurrence in Ohio was over 80% _____________ [serovar].
Modes of transmission of Lepto. (5)
Direct contact or exposure of contaminated urine, mucous membranes, abraded skin; vertical transmission (animals only); indirect contact with contaminated water or mud
In the U.S., Lepto is a(n) __(3)__ zoonoses.
occupational, outdoor, and recreational
Occupations at risk for contraction of Lepto. (4)
farmers, animal caretakers/vets, mine/sewer workers, slaughter plant workers
How is Lepto a recreational zoonoses?
What time of year are Lepto infections more common?
August thru November
In humans and non-adapted hosts, Lepto has an incubation period of _________, a leptospiremic phase of _________, and a Leptospiruria phase of _________.
2-30days ; hours-9 days; <30 days
In adapted hosts, Lepto has an incubation period of _________, a leptospiremic phase of _________, and a Leptospiruria phase of _________.
2-30 days ; 4-9days; weeks/months/years/lifetime
Describe the Leptospiremic phase. (2)
multiplication in the vascular space, dissemination to many organs: liver, spleen, CNS, eyes, genitals, and kidneys
Describe the Leptospiruria phase. (2)
kidney colonization, expulsion of Leptospira in the urine
Subclinical serovar in bovines and its manifestation.
hardjo; inferility problems
Acute form of lepto in cattle and its manifestations. (5)
pomona; high fever, pulmonary congestion, hemoglobinuria, agalactia, jaundice
Chronic form of Lepto in bovines and its manifestations. (4)
hardjo; fetal infection and abortion, reproductive problems, subclinical infections
In canines, the majority of Lepto infections are _________.
In canines with clinical Lepto infection, there is a(n) _________ that lasts 3-4 days; clinical signs include... (5)
acute febrile; hemorrhage in oral cavity, pharyngitis, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, jaundice, and acute nephritis.
What serovar(s) is/are humans susceptible to?
in general, any serovar
What are the forms of human disease?
anicteric form, icteric form
Describe the mild symptoms of the anicteric form of human disease. (5)
high fever, headache, myalgias, chills, vomiting and diarrhea
Describe the severe symptoms of the anicteric form of human disease. (6)
high fever, headache, respiratory disease, severe myalgias, conjunctiva suffusion, hepatomegaly
Which form of human disease is more severe?
Describe the symptoms of the icteric form of human disease. (7)
meningitis, rash, haemolytic anemia, renal failure, widespread hemorrhages, liver failure, jaundice
The icteric form of human disease is known as _________, and fatality can be up to ________.
Weil's disease; 20%
Is there cross protection between Lepto serovars?
How do you confirm diagnosis of Lepto? (3)
Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), isolation from blood (first 7 days) or CSF (4-10days) during acute illness, isolation of Leptospiras in urine after the day 10
What is imperative when manipulating urinary catheters or when cleaning urine of a Lepto patient?
protective eye wear and a face mask- aerozolization of urine is possible
Describe patient management with suspect lepto.
any dog with renal failure should be managed as a Lepto patient (PPE, etc) until an alternate diagnosis has been made
Describe housing of Lepto patients in the hospital.
housing in isolation is not necessary as Lepto is not readily transmitted b/w dogs
What is the purpose of placing a u cath in a Lepto patient?
to prevent urinary contamination in the event of urinary incontinence
How should you clean areas contaminated with urine?
:1: aqueous solution of 10% bleach
What is something very important to inform owners of Lepto patients?
should be advised to wash their hands after handling their pets
How should a dog be treated before being sent home?
treated dogs represent a low risk to household members- treat with penicillin or
(5mg/kg PO BID 14 days) (decreases shedding)
Why shouldn't you pressure wash areas where Lepto patients were?
can aerosolize urine