Endocrine3- Calcium in LA

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Endocrine3- Calcium in LA
2015-11-09 10:58:25
vetmed endocrine3

vetmed endocrine3
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  1. Low ionized calcium leads to clinical signs, which include...
    muscle weakness or tetany (species dependent), neurologic deficits
  2. Ca2+ is responsible for ________; cows with low iCa2+ inhibits ___________, leading to... (2)
    stabilization of neuronal membranes; Ach release (opposite of dogs); hypothermia and flaccid paralysis (also opposite of dogs).
  3. In a cow, failure of Ach release leads to _______.
  4. Causes of hypocalcemia in a cow. (9)
    parturient paresis**, sepsis, vit D deficiency, malabsorption, oxalates (oxalate-containing plants), Ph enemas, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, hypoalbuminemia, CKD
  5. Some cows have reduced _________ with age, increasing their risk for _____________.
    PTH receptors; PTH-independent hypocalcemia
  6. If PTH is high, why is calcium low?
    temporary inability of target organs to respond to PTH because of low calcitonin, high estrogen, and high cortisol (antagonizes vit D absorption from GI)
  7. Why do hypocalcemic cows become alkalotic?
    anorexia and GI stasis--> udder still removing calcium from the blood
  8. Hypocalcemia usually occurs in...
    multiparous cows within 48hrs of gestation
  9. In small ruminants, hypocalcemia is thought to be _____________.
    pregnancy toxemia
  10. _________ looks the same as milk fever; it can be brought on by administration of __________.
    Hypokalemia; dextrose (CMPK)
  11. Clinical signs of stage 1 milk fever (subclinical). (8)
    standing, reduced appetite, hyperexcitable, tremors, unsteady, restless, mouth open, gasping
  12. Clinical signs of stage 2 milk fever. (12)
    sternal recumbancy, depression, anorexia, S-curved neck, dry muzzle, hypothermia, dilated pupils, relaxed anal sphincter, decreased heart sounds, tachycardia, rumen stasis, uterine inertia
  13. Clinical signs of stage 3 milk fever.
    lateral recumbancy, inability to rise sternal, flaccid muscles, bloat, aspiration pneumonia
  14. Pre-partum differentials for signs of hypocalcemia. (3)
    musculoskeletal injury, uterine disease, grass tetany
  15. Post-partum differentials for signs of hypocalcemia. (7)
    septic metritis, septic mastitis, musculoskeletal, grass tetany, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (hardware- stabs heart when contracts during parturition), abomasal volvulus, metabolic (milk fever, nervous ketosis)
  16. Treatment of hypocalcemia in a cow.
    calcium gluconate slowly while auscultating heart
  17. How do you prevent milk fever?
    feed DCAD diet (want negative DCAD), feed anionic salts (sulfates or chlorides)--> induce metabolic acidosis--> increased Ca and Mg absorption
  18. How do you detect if the DCAD diet is working?
    test pH of urine--> should be acidic
  19. Mean pH values of urine in pre-fresh dry cows should be ________.
  20. Anionic salts work best when _________ is high.
    dietary calcium
  21. In order for the DCAD diet to work, it must be fed ___________.
    at least 10 days prior to calving