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What is Socioeconomic status (SES) determined by?
- occupational prestige.
¨Prestige: the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society (Bennett, 2009, pg. 145).
What are the four elements of prestige?
- 1. Pay
- 2. Education
- 3. Abstract thought (working with ideas or people rather than things)
- 4. Autonomy and authority
What are the 6 class model
- 1.Upper class
- 2.Upper middle class
- 3.Lower middle class
- 4.Working class
- 5.Working poor
- 6.Underclass/lower class
What class would you name this?
Old money, wealth/power, 1% of population
That is right "old money"
What would you classify these ppl as?
"New money, entrepreneurs, presidents of major corporations, sports/entertainment celebrities. "
- You got it again!
- Upper class "New Money"
People who are:
"Highly educated professionals (physicians, lawyers stockbrokers), university educated, authority/independence in job, high income. This is most influenced by education."
Would be classified as?
Upper middle class
College/university degree (used to be high school but this has changed) – medical technicians, nurses, legal/medical secretaries, lower level managers
Would be classified as?
Lower middle class
30% of CDN population; semiskilled machine operators, factory employees, service sector (sales), jobs involve routine/mechanized tasks with little skill. “Pink Collar” = daycare workers, checkout clerks, cashiers, waitresses.
these are the working class
20% of population; near poverty line – unskilled, seasonal, low paying jobs; often single mothers; cannot live on these wages, must rely on social support.
Who are these ppl?
The working poor
Stigmatized, seldom employed, low levels of education/income creates long-term deprivation; unable to work due to age, disability, discrimination. Single-mothers overrepresented here. Homeless
These are the under lower class **(
when a person commits a crime out of greed...
which class would the fall under?
Upper Class: crime motivated by greed
When a person commints a crime out of anger or desperation...
What class would they fall under?
Lower Class: crime motivated by anger, frustration, hopelessness.
What percent of Canadians live in poverty?
16% of Canadians live in poverty
Any individual or family that spends more than ??? of their income on the three essentials of life – food, clothing, and shelter – is considered to be living in ???.
Any individual or family that spends more than 70% of their income on the three essentials of life – food, clothing, and shelter – is considered to be living in poverty.
What type of poverty is the below?
¨?????: when the person does not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
Absolute poverty: when the person does not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
What type of poverty is the below?
¨?????: able to afford basic necessities but are unable to maintain an average standard of living.
¨Relative poverty: able to afford basic necessities but are unable to maintain an average standard of living.
How do we measure Low-Income Cut-Off (LICO)?
Families that spend 20% more (of their income) than the average Canadian family on the necessities.
According to Statistics Canada anyone spending more than 55% of their income on the necessities of life are considered to be living in poverty.
True or false?
Are children at much greater risk of living in poverty than someone over 65?
Children are at much greater risk of living in poverty than someone over 65
What percentage of children under the age of 18 are living in poverty?
Out of 35 industrial countries, Canada ranks ????th
Canada ranks 24th
¨Women are among the poorest of the poor.¨
What is this referred to as?
the “feminization of poverty”.
2/3 of all adults living in poverty in Canada are ????
¤Unemployment for Aboriginal people in Canada runs between ??% – ??% with the National average being ?%.
¤Unemployment for Aboriginal people in Canada runs between 15 – 25% with the National average being 7%.
¨“??? ??????” – a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform some jobs that have been taken over by computers (e.g. certain low level accounting positions)
What is this called?
¨“Job deskilling” – a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform some jobs that have been taken over by computers (e.g. certain low level accounting positions)
Inequality is necessary for the smooth functioning of society. Social stratification leads to meritocracy: a hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on ability and credentials.
Is this a conflict perspective, feminist or Functional?
Dominant groups maintain and control the distribution of rewards, resources, privileges and opportunities at the expense of others.
what perspective is this?
??????? conflict theorists explain that growing inequality is a result of the ????? ?????, profit that is generated when the cost of labour is less than the cost of the goods and services being produced.
¤Marxist conflict theorists explain that growing inequality is a result of the surplus value, profit that is generated when the cost of labour is less than the cost of the goods and services being produced.
What perspective is the below?
Class and gender reinforce one another and create inequalities and oppressions for women “within” different social classes
¤Focus is on the microlevel effects of wealth and poverty on people’s social interactions.
Which perspective is this?
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
¤For example, in its various forms, deference (a type of ceremonial activity that functions as a symbolic means whereby appreciation is regularly conveyed to a recipient) confirms inequality between individuals in differing social class positions (use of first name or last name with title).
- An ex of deference is a Doctor/Professor/Judge