GBC-Week-6 - Introduction to Social Stratification

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GBC-Week-6 - Introduction to Social Stratification
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GBC Week Introduction Social Stratification
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GBC-Week-6 - Introduction to Social Stratification
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  1. What is Social Stratification?
    The structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power

    or

    refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.
  2. What are the TWO Systems of Stratification?
    • 1.  Closed System
    • 2. Open system
  3. ????: based on ascribed statuses with little or no possibility of individual mobility◦Race, ethnicity, family background.

    Which system is this closed or open?
    Closed Systems: based on ascribed statuses with little or no possibility of individual mobility Race, ethnicity, family background
  4. What is ascribed statuses
    Ascribed status is the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life. It is a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned.
  5. ???? System: based on achieved statuses and competition allowing for upward or downward mobility of members

    Is this an open or closed system?
    Open System: based on achieved statuses and competition allowing for upward or downward mobility of members
  6. What is achieved statuses?
    it is a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen
  7. What is Ascription?
    • Your family’s station in life determines your own fortunes.–
    • Some inherit wealth and status–
    • Some inherit a disadvantaged status
  8. What is Achievement?
    This is where your own talents determine your lot in life.

    Achievements are NOT inherited
  9. What is the Sociocultural Evolution Approach?
    As we evolved and were able to accumulate wealth then lines of stratification began to appear.
  10. What are the Four Systems of Stratification?
    • 1.  Slavery
    • 2.  Castes
    • 2.  Estates
    • 4.  Social Classes
  11. Which system of Stratification does the below fall under?

    Individuals are owned by other people–.  (Could be for life or only for a period of time)

    1.  Slavery
    2.  Castes
    2.  Estates
    4.  Social Classes
    1.  Slavery
  12. Which system of Stratification does the below fall under?

    Hereditary systems of rank, usually religiously dictated, tend to be fixed and immobile

    1.  Slavery
    2.  Castes
    3.  Estates
    4.  Social Classes
    2.  Castes
  13. ???? associated with feudal societies (also called feudalism); still exist to an extent today. People worked for the landowner in exchange for protection.

    Which system of stratification does this fall under?
    Estates
  14. What is Social classes?
    Social Classes: Class system based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
  15. TEST QUESTION!!

    Is Stratification Universal?
    • YES!!  it is universal – the larger the society the more necessity for specialized jobs.
  16. How would a Functionalist perspective explain the discrepancy in the salaries that we see in Canada
    Kingsley Davis (1945): Society must distribute its members among a variety of social positions. Stratification should result in a meritocracy: where all positions are awarded on the basis of merit. So those who have the skills would get the education and the jobs.
  17. How would a Conflict Perspective explain the discrepancy in the salaries that we see in Canada
    Marx’s view - Examined social relations within capitalism – an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is accumulation of profits.
  18. Ideology of the ????????, through which it justifies its ???????? over ?????.
    Ideology of the bourgeoisie, through which it justifies its dominance over workers.

    (Conflict perspective)
  19. What is bourgeoisie?
    In Marxist philosophy the bourgeoisie is the social class that came to own the means of production during modern industrialization and whose societal concerns are the value of property and the preservation of capital, to ensure the perpetuation of their economic supremacy in society.
  20. ????: a group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income.
    Class: a group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income.
  21. ◦?????: people who have the same prestige or lifestyle.
    Status: people who have the same prestige or lifestyle.
  22. ?????: the ability to exercise one’s will over others – big business and government which are closely interrelated.
    Power: the ability to exercise one’s will over others – big business and government which are closely interrelated
  23. The powerful, want society to run smoothly so that they can enjoy their privileged positions.
    They want to maintain the STATUS QUO, so that they can maintain their positions of wealth, status and power.
    For example: Companies that “union bust” (Walmart)

    Which Theoretical Perspective is this?
    Contemporary Conflict Theorists
  24. What are the four reasons we have global Inequality?
    • 1.Legacy of colonialism
    • 2.Globalization
    • 3.Advent of multinational corporations
    • 4.Modernization
  25. What is Neocolonialism?
    1. The dominance of strong nations over weak nations, not by direct political control (as in traditional colonialism), but by economic and cultural influence.

    2. Continued dependence and foreign domination of peripheral world economies.

    The core nations and their corporations control the economies of the peripheral countries.
  26. Economic/cultural influence in Peripheral Countries is?
    World’s major source of raw materials and cheap labour.

    Examples: Bangladesh, India, Sierra Leone.
  27. Economic/cultural influence in Semi peripheral Countries is?
    • Former colonies that are making considerable headway in their attempt to become prosperous.
    • Marginal economic status.
    • Examples: Israel, Ireland, South Korea.
  28. Core Countries...
    Capitalist countries that are the world’s major sources of capital and technology.

    Core countries have products made in peripheral countries

    Examples: United States, Japan, Germany.
  29. What is Colonialism?
    Occurs when a foreign power maintains political, social, economic and cultural domination of a people for an extended period. (Bennett, 2009, pg136).

    • Examples:
    • Britain in North America, Africa, India, parts of the Caribbean.
    • French in North Africa.
    • Belgium in Congo, and Rwanda
  30. What three ethnic groups composed Rwanda?
    • 85% Hutu
    • 14% Tutsi
    • 1% Twa
  31. Before per-conolization where the Tutsis the ruling minority?
    Yes!!

    Tutsis were the ruling minority, but there was never a serious conflict pre-colonization.
  32. When the Belgium colonized Rwanda in 1916 and made ethnic divisions rigid:

    Which ethnic group was put into power and why?
    Tutsis were put into power over the Hutus because they were thought to have more “European” noses.
  33. Did the Hutus over power the Tutsis once Belgium decolonized in 1962 and encouraged “power sharing?
    ◦Hutus majority took power until early 1990s, when Tutsis tried to overthrow the Hutus government
  34. Over a period of ??? days in 1994, the Hutus killed ???,??? Tutsis
    Over a period of 100 days in 1994, the Hutus killed 800,000 Tutsis
  35. Belgium had troops to ???? the massacre, but ??????? before it began
    Belgium had troops to prevent the massacre, but withdrew before it began
  36. When was South Africa Colonized by the English and Dutch?
    In the 17th Century.
  37. Apartheid laws were enacted in ????, racial discrimination was institutionalized
    Apartheid laws were enacted in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized
  38. !!!TEST QUESTION!!!

    What is Globalization?
    • Worldwide integration of:
    • government policies
    • cultures
    • social movements
    • financial markets
    • Through trade and exchange of ideas. (Bennett, 2009, pg. 138)
  39. World Bank and International Monetary Fund hold significant ???? over smaller countries who have loans.

    They can determine ???? policies within a country by ????? to call in a loan or ????? money.
    World Bank and International Monetary Fund hold significant power over smaller countries who have loans.

    They can determine internal policies within a country by threatening to call in a loan or withholding money.
  40. Refers top commercial organizations that are headquartered in one country but do business throughout the world.

    What kind of companies do you call this?
    Multinational (Transnational) Corporations

    Examples:

    North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has allowed many factory jobs to be moved from Canada or the U.S. to Mexico where labour is significantly cheaper.

    I.T. services and call centres are often located in India where labour is even cheaper.
  41. What is the Functionalist Perspective on Multinational Corporations?
    • 1.  They bring jobs and industry.
    • 2.  Promote rapid development.
    • 3.  Take maximum advantage of technology while reducing costs and boosting profits.
    • 4.  Facilitate global exchange of ideas/technology.
    • 5.  Makes the nations interdependent.
    • 6.  Reduces the risks of conflict – less likely to go to war with a country where your main labour force is
  42. What is the Conflict Perspective on Multinational Corporations?
    • 1.  Multinational’s exploit local workers to maximize profits.
    • 2.  Developing world discourages strong labour unions.
    • 3.  There is a negative social impact on workers in both industrialized and developing nations. (Even in the CORE countries it can put the ppl at a disadvantage as the ppl in the CORE countries lose their jobs)
    • 4.  Increases inequality within developing nations.
  43. Multinational Corporations: Functionalist vs. Conflict
    • Functionalist view: ◦That this will eventually improve lives in the developing nations.
    • (Functionalist believe that we helping by providing jobs and this is good)
  44. Multinational Corporations: Functionalist vs. Conflict
    • Conflict View:
    • That it further facilitates exploitation of the developing nations (Conflict believes that this is bad b/c we are exploiting the workers)
  45. What is modernization?
    The movement from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies

    OR

    Modernization, in sociology, the transformation from a traditional, rural, agrarian society to a secular, urban, industrial society.

    Modern society is industrial society


  46. Can you name a few examples of modernization?
    • 1.  Have sophisticated transportation and media systems.
    • 2.  Families tend to be nuclear.
    • 3.  Move their allegiance from traditional sources of authority (parents, priests) to newer authorities such as government.
  47. Modernization Theory to explain global inequality
    • Global inequality results from:
    • various dysfunctional characteristic of poor societies.
  48. What are some examples of Citizens of poor societies
    • 1.  Lack sufficient capital to invest in Western-style agriculture and industry
    • 2.  Lack Western-style business techniques 3.  Lack Western-style governments
    • 4.  Lack Western-style mentality
  49. What does the Modernization Theory agrue?
    Argues that rich countries can best help poorer countries by transferring Western culture and capital to them to eliminate dysfunction.
  50. How will the Modernization Theory help the poorer countries?
    This will help poor countries with:

    • 1. cap population growth
    • 2. stimulate democracy
    • 3. agricultural
    • 4. industrial production
  51. How can the Modernization Theory be accomplished?
    • This can be accomplished through:
    • Foreign aid and the encouragement of trade between rich and poor countries.
  52. What does the Dependency Theory do?
    (Think conflict)
    Points out flaw in modernization theory
  53. How does the Dependency Theory point out flaws in the modernization theory?
    1.  Victim-blaming by focusing on internal characteristics of poorer countries. (It is not the poor countries fault it is the big countries fault)

    2.  Powerful countries have deliberately impoverished less powerful countries.
  54. How does the Dependency Theory point out flaws in the modernization theory?
    1.  Global inequality can be better explained by patterns of domination and submission (conflict theory).

    2.  Patterns of domination and submission: forced colonies to become source of raw materials, cheap labour, etc… ensuring poverty.

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