Cattle2- Fluid Therapy
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Cattle2- Fluid Therapy
What is the main goal of fluid therapy?
What are the principles of fluid therapy for neonatal diarrhea? (4)
maintain hydration with volume, maintain energy/caloric intake, IV or enteral, DO NOT discontinue milk feeding
How can you tell if the patient is dehydrated? (6)
sunken eyes, extended skin tent time, cool extremities, rapid HR, poor pulse quality, diarrhea/blood loss
Dehydration/ Fluids Chart
Goals for fluid therapy for calf diarrhea. (4)
correct fluid/ electrolyte abnormalities, correct acid-base deficits, provide nutritional support, eliminate/prevent E. coli bacteremia
Requirements for enteral fluid therapy. (2)
functional GI tract, calves with intact suckle reflex
Contraindications for enteral fluid therapy. (4)
ileus, rumen acidosis, bloat, no suckle reflex
What type of fluids should be given? (3)
balanced, isotonic electrolyte solutions (LRS, Normosol R, Plasmalyte), Alkalinizing fluids (bicarb)
What requirements should oral fluids fulfill? (5)
sufficient sodium to expand ECF volume, replace lost Cl-, replace lost K+, provide energy (glucose, citrate, glyciene, etc), provide alkalinizing agent (acetate, proprionate, or bicarb)
What is the base deficit (bicarb deficit) of a calf that is standing, strong suckling reflex?
What is the base deficit (bicarb deficit) of a calf that is standing, weak suckling reflex?
What is the base deficit (bicarb deficit) of a calf that is sternally recumbant?
What is the base deficit (bicarb deficit) of a calf that is laterally recumbant?
How do you determine how much fluids should be given?
BW (kg) x estimated % dehydration = volume of replacement fluids in L
The most common cause of death due to diarrhea?
acidosis and dehydration
Calves that do not suckle require...
Equation to determine how much bicarb to give a calf.
bicarb (mmol) = BW (kg) x BD x 0.5
BD= base deficit estimated
What are the problems with modern milk replacers?
do not clot in the abomasum--> allow growth of coliforms; best milk replacers has less than half the kcal/L than milk
If the calf will nurse and tolerate extra feedings, then...
add 1-2 feedings of electrolytes per day ~every 6 hrs
How do you asses fluid deficits in an adult animal? (4)
volume of fluid in rumen (rumen fill), enophthalmos, neck or eyelid skin tent, hematocrit/TP
IV therapy is indicated in an adult when estimated dehydration is _________; the skin tent is _______, eyeball is recessed ________.
>8%; ≥6s; ≥4mm
Oral rehydration in an adult is indicated when dehydrated _________; give __________.
<8%; 5 gallons of isotonic fluid
What is the rate of fluid administration for an adult animal?
IV fluid therapy is indicated in an adult animal in the following conditions: (5)
acute blood loss/shock, obstructive GI disease, hepatic lipidosis, chronic/refractory ketosis, endotoxemia (acute coliform mastitis)
What are alkalinizing fluids? (2)
sodium bicarb, LRS
Non-alkalinizing fluids. (1)
The sickest cows have ________ and should get __________.
alkalosis; non-alkalinizing fluids (sodium chloride, Ringers solution-NOT LACTATED), Cl- and K+ rich solutions
Acidosis is most common in the following conditions (adults): (5)
urinary tract disease, grain engorgement, SI strangulation/obstruction, enteritis/diarrhea, choke/dysphagia
On farm, always estimate that base deficit (BD) is ______.
Bicarbonate space for and adult is ________, for a neonate is _______.
Equation for correction of acidosis.
body weight (kg) x bicarb space x base deficit= mEq of bicarb needed to correct deficit