quotes

Card Set Information

Author:
sanchemd
ID:
311273
Filename:
quotes
Updated:
2015-11-12 08:38:17
Tags:
quotes
Folders:

Description:
quotes
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user sanchemd on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. "I then turn to a discussion of the asymmetric nature of archaeological
    and ecological data between the northern and southern halves of the
    American Bottom and the impact this imbalance has had on archaeological
    perceptions of the contemporaneous societies that once existed there."
    Sissel Schroeder
  2. "What was arguably the most spectacular of the Mississippian-era (c. AD 1000-1600) Native American societies in eastern North America was located here, centred on the site of Cahokia."
    Sissel Schroeder
  3. "The first belt - also called the 'low sinuosity meander scar zone' (Milner 1993) - adjacent to the river, does not appear to have been
    extensively inhabited during late prehistoric times, and geomorphological research suggests that many of the landforms within
    this first belt are more recent in age (Hajic 1992; White et al. 1984)."
    Sissel Schroeder
  4. "the spatial distribution of tree taxa (e.g. willow, cottonwood, boxelder,sycamore, maple, pin oak, ash, pecan, honey locust, elm, hackberry, buroaks) and herbaceous plant resources (e.g. grape, blackberry,
    raspberry, etc.) across the valley floor also supports a tripartite topographically based division of the floodplain into three zones, which I have called deep wetlands, shallow wetlands and dry land (encompassing forests, grasslands, and clearings"
    Sissel Schroeder
  5. "An important dimension of this and many other models of chiefly
    emergence is the availability of surpluses that can be manipulated to
    manage the risks of potential subsistence shortfalls and finance and
    sustain political stratagems, trade, warriors, communal projects and
    ritual"
    Sissel Schroeder
  6. "The ascendant position of these elites was advanced through ideological
    persuasion (Emerson 1997) and the development of an ideology of elite
    sanctity"
    Sissel Schroeder
  7. "According to these agency models, elites, to further bolster their power,
    manipulated alliances by fostering indebtedness through gifts and
    favours, controlling the production and exchange of craft goods,
    maintaining exclusive trading relationships, using warfare to expand
    their power and quell potential rivals and consolidating control over
    key resources"
    Sissel Schroeder
  8. "Through time, a long-lived place became institutionalised genealogically as people appropriated or manipulated its importance for their own purposes, perhaps deriving from it a sense of their own identity and destiny."
    Sissel Schroeder
  9. "This work demonstrates that while not all equally productive places were occupied to the same extent, places that were occupied over the longest periods of time are found in the most productive and diverse local settings, thus creating enduring assets."
    Sissel Schroeder
  10. "It is argued that archaeology has made few contributions to the general field of anthropology with regard to explaining cultural similarities and differences."
    Lewis Binford
  11. "One major factor contributing to this lack is asserted to be the tendency to treat artifacts as equal and comparable traits which can be explained within a single model of culture change and modification"
    Lewis Binford
  12. "Three major functional sub-classes of material culture are discussed: technomic, socio-technic, and ideo-technic, as well as stylistic formal properties which cross-cut these categories. "
    Lewis Binford
  13. "IT HAS BEEN aptly stated that "American archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing"
    Lewis Binford
  14. "The meaning which explana- tion has within a scientific frame of reference is simply the demonstration of a constant articula- tion of variables within a system and the meas- urement of the concomitant variability among the variables within the system."
    Lewis Binford
  15. "Processual change in one variable can then be shown to re- late in a predictable and quantifiable way to changes in other variables, the latter changing in turn relative to changes in the structure of the system as a whole"
    Lewis Binford
  16. "It is suggested that archaeologists have not made major explanatory contributions to the field of anthropology because they do not conceive of archaeological data in a systemic frame of reference"
    Lewis Binford
  17. "Archaeologists tacitly assume that artifacts, regardless of their functional context, can be treated as equal and comparable "traits."
    Lewis Binford
  18. "Study of these differential distributions can potentially yield valuable information concerning the nature of social organization within, and changing rela- tionships between, socio-cultural systems. "
    Lewis Binford
  19. "We must seek explanation in systemic terms for classes of his- torical events such as migrations, establishment of "contact" between areas previously isolated, etc. "
    Lewis Binford
  20. "Within this framework it is consistent to view technology, those tools and social relationships which articulate the organism with the physical environment, as closely related to the nature of the environment."
    Lewis Binford
  21. "We should not equate "material culture" with technology. Similarly we should not seek explanations for observed differences and similarities in "material culture" within a single interpretative frame of reference. "
    Lewis Binford
  22. "Cross-cutting all of these general classes of artifacts are formal characteristics which can be termed stylistic, formal qualities that are not di- rectly explicable in terms of the nature of the raw materials, technology of production, or vari- ability in the structure of the technological and social sub-systems of the total cultural system."
    Lewis Binford
  23. "The processing phase of tool production ap- pears to present an equally puzzling ratio with regard to expenditure of energy."
    Lewis Binford
  24. "The term "egalitarian" signifies that status positions are open to all persons within the limits of certain sex and age classes, who through their individual physical and mental characteristics are capable of greater achievement in coping with the environment. "
    Lewis Binford
  25. Where group size is large and/or where between-group interactions are widespread, lowering the inti- macy and familiarity between interacting indi- viduals, then there should be a greater and more general use of material means of status com- munication
    Lewis Binford
  26. "We as archaeologists have avail- able a wide range of variability and a large sam- ple of cultural systems. Ethnographers are re- stricted to the small and formally limited extant cultural systems."
    Lewis Binford
  27. "Archaeologists should be among the best qualified to study and directly test hypotheses concerning the process of evolutionary change, particularly processes of change that are rela- tively slow, or hypotheses that postulate tem- poral-processual priorities as regards total cul- tural systems."
    Lewis Binford
  28. "As archaeologists, with the entire span of culture history as our "laboratory," we can- not afford to keep our theoretical heads buried in the sand."
    Lewis Binford
  29. "Culture is an organization of phenomena - material objects, bodily acts, ideas, and sentiments - which consists of or is dependent upon the use of symbols Man, being the only animal capable of symbol behavior, is the only creature to possess culture."
    Leslie White
  30. "Furthermore, the satisfaction of human needs from "inner resources" may be regarded as a constant, the satisfaction of needs from the outer resource, a variable."
    Leslie White
  31. "Cultural progress was very slow during Eolithic and Paleolithic times. But after a relatively brief period in the Neolithic age, during which the agricultural arts were being developed, ther was a tremendous acceleration of culture growth and the great cultures of China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Mexico, and Peru, came rapidly into being."
    Leslie White
  32. "This has the effect of acceleration progress in the arts, crafts, and sciences (astronomy, mathematics, etc.), since they are now in the hands of specialists rather than jacks-o-all-trades."
    Leslie White
  33. "Hence, we obtain the law: Other things being equal, culture evolves as the productivity of human labor increases."
    Leslie White
  34. "In Savergery (wild food economy) the productivity of human labor is low. only a small amount of human-need-serving goods and services are produced per unit of human energy. In Barbarism (agriculture, animal husbandry), this productivityis greatly increased. And in Civilization (fuels, engines) it is still further increased."
    Leslie White
  35. "On the one hand we have social groupings which serve those needs of man which can be fed by drawing upon resources within man's own organism: clubs for companionship, classes or castes in so far as they feed the desire for distinction, will serve as examples."
    Leslie White
  36. "We of the United States have a certain type of social system (in part) because we have factories, railroads, automobiles, etc.; we do not possess these things as a consequence of a certain kind of social system."
    Leslie White
  37. "We come then to the following conclusion: A social system may so condition the operation of a technological system as to impose a limit upon the extent to which it can expand and develop. When this occurs, cultural evolution ceases."
    Leslie White
  38. "When cultural advance has thus been arrested, it can be renewed only by tapping some new source of energy and by harnessing it in sufficient magnitude to burst asunder the social system which binds it."
    Leslie White
  39. "Whit it, and various kinds of internal combustion engines, the energy resources of vast deposits of coal and oil were tapped and harnessed in progressively increasing magnitudes."
    Leslie White
  40. "When in the course of cultural development, the expanding technology comes into conflict whit the social system, one of two things will happen: either the social system will give way, or technological advance will be arrested."
    Leslie White
  41. "Such staunch institutions as the tribe and clan which had served man well for thousands of years did not give way to political state without a fight: the "liberty, equality and fraternity" of primitive society were not surrendered for the class-divided, serf and lord, slave and masters, society of feudalism without a stuggle."
    Leslie White
  42. "The Industrial Revolution was but the first stage, the technological stage, of this great cultural revolution."
    Leslie White
  43. "Should, however, the amount of energy that we are able to harness diminish materially, then culture would cease to advance or even recede."
    Leslie White
  44. "Man is an animal. His first and greatest need is food. Control over habitat in general and food supply in particular is effected by means of tools (of all kinds, weapons included). Through invention and discovery the technological means of control are extended and improved."
    Leslie White
  45. "The anti-evelutionists, led in America by Franz Boas, have rejected the theory of evolution in cultural anthropology and have given us instead a philosophy of "planless hodge-podge-ism."
    Leslie White
  46. "Third, it represents a level of sociocultural integration slightly higher than that of the Shoshonie family; for its multifamily aggregates found cohesion not on in kinship relations but in cooperative hunting in commom landownership, and to some extent in joint ceremonies."
    Julian Steward
  47. "It would be stretching credulity much too far to suppose that a pattern which is closley adapted to a special kind of subsistence had persisted for thousands of years among tribes"
    Julian Steward
  48. "Cultures do not exploit their entire environments, and it is therefore, neccessary to consider only those features which bear upon the productivity patterns."
    Julian Steward
  49. "Exploitative technology of these societies varied considerably in detail, but in all cases it included weapons of about equal efficiency and hunting patterns which entailed as much cooperation as circumstances permitted."
    Julian Steward
  50. "The inevitability of such bands under the given conditions is shown by its persistence along with clans, moieties, and other special patterns in the different groups, and, in the case of the Congo, an interdependence of the hunting Negritos and farming Bantu tribes who inhabited the same area."
    Julian Steward
  51. "If human beings could be conceived stripped of culture, it is not unreasonable to suppose that innate male dominance would give men a commanding position."
    Julian Steward
  52. "Present-day endogamy is further shown by the presence of unrelated families in the same band."
    Julian Steward
  53. "At least one important cause of composite bands today is the practice of marrying cousins."
    Julian Steward
  54. "The Tehuelche of Patagonia, although very incompletely known, are instructive when compared with the Ona."
    Julian Steward
  55. "The political unit consequently increased in size and had a single, although not absolute, chief."
    Julian Steward
  56. "In any society there are certain cultural factors which potentially give cohesion to aggregates of several families: marriage, extension of kinship ties and corollary extensions of icest taboos, groups ceremonies, myths, games, and other features."
    Julian Steward
  57. "The use of bows and arrows, traps, hunting nets, game drievers, or grass firing can generally be traced to diffusion, but the hunting patterns and the social effect of these patterns are quite unlike in areas of sparse and scattered game and in areas of large herds of migratory game."
    Julian Steward
  58. "The extent and degree to which subsistence patterns affect the total structure of the society and the functional integration of its various parts are questions to be answered by empirical procedure."
    Julian Steward
  59. "A holistic or fuctional explanation minimizes the importance of cultural ecology by insisting that all features of the culture are equally cause and effect. This simply evades the issue of casuality."
    Julian Steward
  60. "Containers used in transporting, preparing, and storing food, for example, could not be elaborate, heavy, or numerous because of the nomadic life, but the materials of which they were made, their specific forms, and their decorations were quite variable."
    Julian Steward
  61. "Otherwise, they built mere windbreaks, bursh-or-skin-covered conical lodges, or dome-shaped brush houses. Similar huts are found scattered throughout the world among primitive peoples, and it would be rather profitless to speculate as to whether they diffused or not, for they are so elementary that it would require no great ingenuity to invent them."
    Julian Steward
  62. "While the formal aspects of these are attributable to diffusion, their functional significance was very similar because of their role in the total culture."
    Julian Steward
  63. "The local forms and functions of the puberty rites are an illustration of the conserderable range of variations that could be wovem into the basic pattern of the patrilineal band."
    Julian Steward
  64. "Further, the conditions of emergence of ran and stratification as pristine phenomena are similarly obscured when the impetus to change is the introduction of aspects of a market economy, money as a medium of exchange, rationalization or production, and the transformation of labor into a commodity."
    Morton Fried
  65. "Every human society differentiates among its member sand assigns greater or less prestige to individuals according to certain of their attributes."
    Morton Fried
  66. "These characteristics are ephermeral: moreover, the systems of enculturation prevalent at this level, whith teir emphasis upon the development of subsitence skilss, Make it certain that such skills are well distributed among the members of society of the proper sex and age groups."
    Morton Fried
  67. "In such an embryonic redistributive system the key role is frequently palyed by th olded female in the active generation, since it is she who commonly coordinates the household and runs the kitchen."
    Morton Fried
  68. "The simplest technique of limiting status, beyond those already discussed, is to make succession to status dependent upon birth order."
    Morton Fried
  69. "The key statues is that of the central collectoer or allotments who also tends to the resdistribution of these supplies either in the form of feasts or as emergency seed and provender in time of need."
    Morton Fried
  70. "The kingpin of a redistributive network in an advanced hunting and gathering society or a simple agricultural one is as much the victim of his role as it manipulator."
    Morton Fried
  71. "Two kinds of authority they have: familial, in the extended sense, and scared as the redistributive feast commonly are associatedwiht the ritural life of the community. "
    Morton Fried
  72. "Wehreas the related systems of redistribution and ranking rest upon embryonic institutions that are as universal as family (any family, elementary or extended, conjugal or consanguineal, will do equally well), the principles of stratification have nor real foreshadowing on the lower level."
    Morton Fried
  73. "Put more concretely, this means that "government" appointed chiefs are respeted only in certain limitied situations and theat the main weight of social control continues to rest upon traditional authorities and institions which may not even be recognized by the ruling power."
    Morton Fried
  74. "In brief, the shift to irrigation and terracing is from swiddens or in impermanent fields to plots which will remain in permanent cultivation for decades and generations."
    Morton Fried
  75. "Through the emergence of hydro-agriculture a community which previously acknowledged no permanent association between particlular component units and particular stretches o land now begins to recognize such permanent and exclusive rights."
    Morton Fried
  76. "In all, there seems to have been some six centers at which pristine states emerged, four in the Old World and two in the New: the Tigris-Euphrates area, the region of the lower Nile, the Country drained by the Indus and the middle course of the Huang Ho where it is joined by the Han, Wei and Fen.
    Morton Fried
  77. "I have been led to write this paper by my ignorance of any modern attempt to link up the contributions which have been made in many sub-disciplines into a single unified theory of the emergence of sical stratification and the the state.
    Morton Fried
  78. "The peasant, however does not operate an enterprise in the economic sense; he rushes a household, not a business concern."
    Eric Wolf
  79. "Ther are exceptions, like the Polar Eskimos who were cut off from all outside contact until rediscovered for the larger world by Admiral Peary in his attempt to reach the North Pole."
    Eric Wolf
  80. "The tribes of the Amazon basin, apparently isolated in separate pockets of the torpical forest, trade with one another - for warfare is indeed also a kind of relationship."
    Eric Wolf
  81. "The distinction between primitives and peasants thus does not lie in the greater or lesser outside involvement of one or the other, but in the character of that involvement."
    Eric Wolf
  82. "Thus, in primitive society, producers control the means of production, including their own labor, and exchange their own labor and it products for the culturally defined equivalent goods and services of others."
    Eric Wolf
  83. "The development of a complex social order based on a divsion between rulers and food-producing cultivators is commonly referred to as the development of civilization."
    Eric Wolf
  84. "From these or similar original centers, cultivation spread out with variable speed in different directions, being adapted to the demands of new climates and social exigencies."
    Eric Wolf
  85. "This minimum can be defined quite rigorously in physiological terms as the daily intake of food calories required to balance the expenditures of engery a man incurs in his daily output of labor."
    Eric Wolf
  86. "Cultivators must not only furnish themselves with minimal caloric rations; they must also raise enough food beyond the caloric minimum to provide sufficient seed for next year's crop, or to provide adequate feed for their livestock."
    Eric Wolf
  87. "The amount needed to replace his minimum equipment for both production and consumption was his replacement fund."
    Eric Wolf
  88. "Like the Greek philosopher Diogenes, a man can rid himself of his last cup, since he need not suffer thirst as long as he can make a cup of of his hands. But once pottery cups are a part of a man's culture expectations, they become more than that - they become something he must commit himselft to obtain."
    Eric Wolf
  89. "They must, for example, marry outside the household into which they were born, and this requirement means that they must have social contacts with people who are their potential or actual in-laws."
    Eric Wolf
  90. "They may be required to help each other in some phase of the food quest. But social relations of any kind are never completely utilitarian and instrumental."
    Eric Wolf
  91. "All social relations are surronded by such ceremonial, and ceremonial must be paid for in labor, in goods, or in money."
    Eric Wolf
  92. "The ceremonial fund of a society - and hence the cremonial fund of its members - may be large or small."
    Eric Wolf
  93. "It is important at this point, however, to remember that the efforts of a peasantry are not governed wholly by the exigencies internal to its own way of life."
    Eric Wolf
  94. "With his replacement fund. This is also true in societies where different households manufacture different objects or provide different services that are exchanged in equivalent reciprocal relations."
    Eric Wolf
  95. "It is this production of a fund of rent which critically distiguishes the peasant from the primitive cultivator."
    Eric Wolf
  96. "Yet, in some societies, the rulers merely "camped" amongh the peasantry as the Watusi rulers did until every recently among the Bahutu peasantry of Ruanda Urundi."
    Eric Wolf
  97. "Thus, it is the crystallization of executive power which serves to distinguish the primitive from the civilized, rather than wheter or not such power controls are located in one kind of place or another."
    Eric Wolf
  98. "Not only does our world contain both primitives on the verge of peasantry and full-fleged peasants, but it also contains both societies in which the peasant is the chief producer of the store of social wealth and those in which he has been relegated to a secondary position."
    Eric Wolf
  99. "There are other societies, however, in which the Industrial Revolution has created vast complexes of machines that produce goods quite independently of peasants."
    Eric Wolf
  100. "This attitude is neatly implied in the old song, sung during the peasant uprisings of the late European Middle Ages."
    Eric Wolf
  101. "When Adam delved and Eve Span. Who was the gentleman?"
    Eric Wolf
  102. "Old people may be cared for unitl their death, and their burial paid for from the units stock of wealth."
    Eric Wolf
  103. "This fact has caused the Russian economist A.V. Chaianov to speak of a special kind of peasant economics. He explains this concept in the follwing terms:"
    Eric Wolfe
  104. "As the overarching power sturcture weakens, many traditional social ties also lose their paritcular sanctions."
    Eric Wolf
  105. "Such men were the rising yeomen of sixteenth century England, the rich peasants of Chine, the Kulaki or fists of pre-revolutionary Rissia."
    Eric Wolf
  106. "Similarly at any given time, there will be some individuals who will risk the social ostracism involved in testing the limist of traditional social ties, while others prefer the security involved in following the norm that has been tied."
    Eric Wolf
  107. "Little systematic attention has been given in our discipline to an "Anthropology of knowledge" While some anthropologists have concerned themselves with knowledge in general, as seen throught the varieties of human cultures, few have examined anthropological knowledge itself."
    Sally Slocum
  108. "First is what Peter Berger has called "philosophical anthropology": a study of the nature of the human species. This has always been a legitimate concern of anthropology, but too often we become so concerned with minute differences that we forget we are studying a single species."
    Sally Slocum
  109. "We are human beings studying other human beings, and we cannot leave ourselves out of the equation. We rchose to ask e certain questions, and not others."
    Sally Slocum
  110. "Given the cultural and ethnic background of that majority of anthropologists, it is not surprising that the discipline has beeb biased."
    Sally Slocum
  111. 'The perspective of women is, in many ways, equally foreign to anthroplology that has been developed and pursued primarily by males."
    Sally Slocum
  112. "In fact, one frequently is led to suspect that in the minds of many anthropologists. "man" supposedly meaning the human species, is actually exactly synonymous with "males"."
    Sally Slocum
  113. "Regardless of its status as a survival, hunting by implication as well as direct statement, is pictured as a male activity to the exclusion of females."
    Sally Slocum
  114. "Homo habilis, Homo erectus, etc; and artifacts such as stone tools representing various cultural traditions, evidence of use of fire etc."
    Sally Slocum
  115. "Since we assume that complexity of material culture requires language, we infer the beginnings of language somwhere between Australopithecus and Homo erectus."
    Sally Slocum
  116. "The statement is made that the females were more burdened with depedent infants and could not follow the rigorous hunt."
    Sally Slocum
  117. "Thus the peculiarly human social and emotional bonds can be traced to the hunter bringing back the food to share."
    Sally Slocum
  118. "Every human individual gets half its genes from a male and half from a female; genes sort randomly."
    Sally Slocum
  119. "The rapid increase in brain size and complexity was thus due entirely to half the species; the main function of the female half was to suffer and die in the attempt to give birth to their larger-brained male infants.
    Sally Slocum
  120. "Rather than adult male-female sexual parirs, a temporary consort-type relationship is much more logical in hominid evolution."
    Sally Slocum
  121. "Modern humans have become so accustomed to the thought of tools and weapons that it is easy for us to imagine the first manlike creature whoe picked up a stone of club."
    Sally Slocum
  122. "Bones, sticks and hand-axes could be used for digging up tubers or roots or to pulverizetough vegetable matter for erasing
    Sally Slocum
  123. "Until that degree of communicative skills developed, we must assume either that the whole band traveled and hunted together, or that the males simply did not go off."
    Sally Slocum
  124. "Anthropology has always rested on the assumption that the mark of our species is our ability to bring into existence forms of behavior and interaction and material tools with which to adjust and control
    Sally Slocum
  125. "Learning to be an author pologist has invleved learing to thinck from a male perspective, so it should bot only surprise."
    Sally Slocum
  126. "The historical dimension requries that the myths of the "ethnographic present" be totally eradicated and that anthropologist deal fully with the fat that the structure of gender relations amoung lthe peole. "
    Elanor Leacock
  127. Such warfare as had existed in pre-colonial times usually took the form of petty raiding by young men (and such womens as occasionly chose to participate who tested their mettle in  in a cup-counting system that deemed it more prestigious to touch enemies than kill then."
    Elanor Leacock
  128. "A second example of changes in women's posiion following the colonizton of North Americais affordable by the contrast between Lafitau and Morgan on teh Iro
    Leslie White
  129. "The biologist, who is concerned with questions of physiology and evolutionary history realizes that self-knowledge is constrained and shaped by the emotional control centers in the hypothalamus and limbic system of the brain."
    Edward Wilson
  130. "In a Darwinist sense the organism does not live for itself. It's primary function is not even to reproduce other organisms; it reporduces genes, and it serves as their temporary carrier."
    Edward Wilson
  131. "Natural selection is the process whereby certain genes gain representation in the followin generations superior to that of other genes located at the same chromosome poitions."
    Edward Wilson
  132. "This brings us to the central theoretical problem sociobiology: how can altruism, which by definition reduces personal fitness, possibly evlve by natural selection? HTe answer is kinship: if the genes causing the altruism."
    Edward Wilson
  133. "Love joins hate; aggression fear expansiveness, with drawal; and so on, in blends designed not to promote the happines and survival of the individual but to favor the maximum of the controlling genres."
    Edward Wilson
  134. "If a person dies before his time, his relatives can ask the spirits to distribute among them what he has failed to utilize."
    Claude Levi-Strauss
  135. "That is, by giving up one full life, an indefinite succession of half-lives is gained.
    Claude Levi-Strauss
  136. "Moreover, they are not responsible for the second war party during which they are killed, since this latter foray has been initiated by the enemy in revenge for the first."
    Claude Levi-Strauss
  137. "The basic idea is clea: the two friends have developed into successful social beings; accordingly they feel obliged to repay their fellow tribes men who have treated them so well.
    Claude Levi-Strauss
  138. "The obvious conclusion is that the heroes have willingly died for the sake of their people.
    Claude Levi-Strauss
  139. "There is athe opposition between ordinary life and heroic life the former realizing a full life-span, not renewable, the latter gambling with life for
    Claude Levi-Strauss
  140. "The chief's daughter occupies a high social position: so high, in fact that she is cut off from the rest of the group and is therefore paralyzed when it comes to expressing her feelings."
    Claude Levi-Strauss
  141. "This new equilibrium, however,will be ot more las
    Claude Leis Strauss,

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview