patho exam 4 part 4

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patho exam 4 part 4
2015-11-18 13:41:38
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  1. What is LPAI?
    Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza
  2. Where does LPAI (Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza) naturally circulate?
    in wild birds (waterfowl and gulls)
  3. What does Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza mutate to? and how ?
    High Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) thru waterbirds like ducks and geese
  4. How is LPAI (Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza) transmitted?
    • direct contact w/ sick/dead poultry 
    • -inhalation of virus 
    • -contact w/eyes of respiratory mucosa w/ contaminated material 
    • -water contaminated w/ bird feces 

    but routes of transmission isnt clear/proven
  5. What is the incubation period of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza ?
    2-9 days
  6. What are the diagnostic tests used for LPAI?
    • RT-PCR 
    • Culture in BSL-3
  7. What are the clinical findings of LPAI?
    • sudden onset of fever & cough 
    • vomiting, diarrhea, nausea
    • rapid progress to severe viral pneumonia 
    • -encephalitis (acute inflammation of brain) and gastroenteritis
  8. What is RT-PCR?
    a variant polymerase chain rxn (PCR) that's commonly used where a RNA strand is reverse transcribed into its DNA complement using enzyme reverse transcriptase 

    -resulting cDNA is amplified using PCR.
  9. How is H5N1 attached?
    attached to type II pnemoncytes, alveolar macrophages and ciliated cuboid epithelial cells of the lower respiratory tract
  10. What was the world's worst public health disaster?
    • influenza (1918 outbreak)
    • -a major influence on BOTH world wars
    • (killed more people in 24 wks than those killed by AIDS in 24 yrs!)
  11. The Future of Influenza...
    1. another influenza is inevitable 

    2. Surveillance of birds (& pigs) may alert us 

    3. Serious impact to normal life 

    • 4. Pharmaceutical companies reluctant to produce large amounts of vaccine that may
    • become obsolete quickly.

    5.  300 million doses are made each year but billions would be required for a pandemic

    6. If a vaccine is produced, need age of coverage & cost 

    7. Research

    8. These may blunt affects of next pandemic but not prevent it!
  12. What are several forms of fungal-animal symbioses?
    yeast, single cells 

    molds, mycelial forms that grow in branching filaments (hyphae) w/ or w/out cross-walls (septa) 

    Dimorphic fungi grows as both mycelium and yeast.
  13. What is medical mycology?
    -the study of fungi as animal and human pathogens
  14. What are the 3 mechanisms that fungi used to cause disease?
    Inappropiate immune Response 

    Toxin Production

    Mycoses-growth of fungus in / on the body. (diseases of warm-blooded animals caused by fungi are called mycoses)
  15. What occurs during the inappropiate immune responses?
    -allergic (hypersensitivity) rxn triggered 

    -Aspergillus spp. common leaf mold produces potent allergens causing asthma and other allergic rxns
  16. Mycotoxins
    - large diverse group of exotoxins 

    - aflatoxins - Aspirgillus flavus (common on improperly stored food)

    highly toxic an carcinogenic inducing tumors at high frequency in some animals and esp birds that feed on contaminated grain.
  17. Mycoses
    fall into 3 categories and most convenient way of classifying them is to categorize birds that feed on contaminated grain
  18. How are superficial infections caused?
    by fungi (aka dermatophytes) that attack the skin or its appendages (nail,feathers, and hair) 

    ex: ringworms, jock-itch and athlete's foot.
  19. Systemic infections occurs within...?
    the tissues, involving vital organs &/or nervous sys (may be fatal/chronic). Entry into body is thru inhalation of spores/open wounds. 

    Blood circulation/respiratory sys may then transmit fungus thruout body and add'l infection of internal organ may occur. These fungi, usually saprotrophic fungi, growing in soil. 
  20. What is a third intermediate infection?
    infection occur below skin but remain localized.
  21. What are secondary metabolites?
    organic compounds which have no direct role in major metabolic pathways (that may serve to discourage predators or suppress competition)
  22. Mycotoxins are not volatile which means?
    exposure must be in airborne spores.
  23. Where do mycotoxins develop and remain in?
    Mycotoxins develop in storage, and remain w/in food after processing and cooking
  24. What are the lab procedures for diagnosis?
    -direct microscopic examination

    -histopathologic studies 


    -serologic testing 

    -molecular diagnostics
  25. What are Galactomannans ?
    polysccharies consisting of a mannose backbone w. galactose side groups
  26. Galactomannan is a component of the _____________ of the mold Aspergillus and is releaed during growth.
    cell wall
  27. Aspergillosis is a very common airborne ______ _________ ?
    soil fungus
  28. __________________ is serious opportunistic threat to AIDS, leukemia, and transplant patients.
  29. How does Aspergillosis affect the body?
    occurs in lungs- spores germinate in lungs and form fungal balls; can colonize sinuses, ear canals, eyelids, and conjunctive
  30. What can Aspergillosis produce?
    necrotic pneumonia, infections of bran, , and other organs.