Psychology test 3 nagmita nagmitas
Card Set Information
Psychology test 3 nagmita nagmitas
Dr. Rick Fry's test 3
Can prescribe drugs
Psychological problem caused by the devil
Abnormal behavior is rare, infrequent, but not all rare is abnormal.
Violations of Norms
Norms are unwritten rules of social conduct, violations of these norms make the observer nervous. Norms change over time. Violators could simply be odd, not abnormal.
Behavior that interferes with basic needs of life, not all is abnormal.
Behavior that leads to distress or unpleasant emotions
Don't understand what you're doing
Cant tell right from wrong
An action which cannot be controlled or prevented
Why is Psychological diagnosis subjective?
because there is no objective physical test that classifies the disorder.
Psychological Diagnostic Tools
Verbal Roports, Observation, Psychological Tests
Benefits of Diagnosis(3)
1. Helps find a cause for disorder
2. Aids in communication- the label of diagnosis helps see the symptoms and aid treatment
3. Course of the disorder is implied
collection of symptoms that go together
Criticisms of Diagnosis (5)
1. No 2 people have exact same symptoms
2. Individuality is ignored
3. The categories create a false sense of discontinuity between normal and abnormal.
4. Unethical because it leads to stigmatization
5. Creates self-fulfilling prophecy- people believe what ever they are told and become it even if they might not have been sick
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
More than 6 months, not clear why person feels anxious. Anxiety about everything.
Symptoms: difficulty controlling anxiety, rest lessness, easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritable, muscle tension, disturbed sleeping.
People with what disorder often also display other disorders such as phobias, OCD, panic attacks, and depression
Psychoanalytic explanation for GAD
unconscious sexual or aggressive impulse are blocked
Behavioral explanation for GAD
Something in the environment triggers anxiety. ex. fear of making a mistake
Biological explanation for GAD
GABA inhibitory system fails to activate.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Must take an hour out of a person's day.
Obessions and compulsions
interuptive thoughts the person realizes but cannot stop.
Rituals are performed to stop anxiety
Psychoanalytic explanation for OCD
overly harsh toilet training leads to an impulse to soil which is prevented by reaction formation.
person knows his desires are unacceptable, so he tries to convince himself or others that he does not think that way, usually by over exaggeration.
Behavioral explanation for OCD
irresistable urge(compulsion) is negatively reinforced
Biological explanation for OCD
Caused by overactivity in basal ganglia
fear, dizziness, pounding heart, chest pain, derealization, sweating, trebling, fear of losing control or going crazy, heart attack.
symptoms need to occur more than once.
change behavior according to attacks
What disorder may develop into agoraphobia?
What is Agoraphobia?
When a person fears being in a situation where escape is difficult
Biological explanations for Panic Attacks
Pons is overly sensitive to norepirephrine which triggers the attack
Cognitive explanations for Panic Attacks
Bodily sensations are blown out of proportion
unrealistic fear of an object or situation
Psychoanalytic explanation for Phobias
Repressed id impulse displaced onto symbolic object.
Learning or Behavioral explanation for Phobias
Mower's 2 factor theory: classical conditioning associates the fear behavior and negative reinforcement by avoiding maintains it.
Biological explanations for Phobias
Cognitive explanation for Phobias
Social Phobia, exaggeration of negative judgements by others to oneself
Defines abnormality (4)
Violation of norms, statistical rarity, maladaptive behavior, personal distress
showing lack of responsiveness to environment
Break in a person's consciousness that affects identity
Impulsive, motivate decision, talk fast
percentage of men and women developing depression
M 5-12% W 10-25%
Characteristics of a person with a depressive explanatory style
Internal blame for everything
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Hallucinations, delusions, word salad, disorganized, catatonic.
Negative sympotms of Schizophrenia
Flat affect, loss of motivation, poverty of speech
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Being a witness or victim to a life threatening event, recurrent recollections, dreams of event, distress to cues of the event, reactivity to cues of the event.
Major depression/ unipolar depression
Depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure for 2 years min. 4 out of the symptoms should occur.
Symptoms of Major/ unipolar depression
weight change, fatigue/ lack of energy, slow, guilt and worthless felling, suicidal thoughts, insomnia-unable to stay asleep, loss of concentration.
Depression where the person still gets through the day- for 2 years
Psychoanalytic explanation for depression
loss of loved one, negative thinking and beliefs, bad characteristics.
Behavioral explanation for depression
Possible thoughts about rewards change leading to decline in rewards, leading to lower activity levels, leading to even lower rewards.
Learned explanations for depression
Actions have no effect on outcomes, person quits trying and had learned to be helpless
Biological explanation for depression
Genetic influences, neurotransmitters- serotonin and norepinephrine
Alternates between depression and manic stage/ extreme agitation. Has genetic factor
Discarded explanations of Schizophrenia(4)
mother, double bind messages from parents, disease myth, an escape mechanism, childhood trauma.
Tendency to suffer from a medical condition, such as genes and stress are for Schiz.
loss or block or memory
Dissociative Identity disorder
Multiple personality like amnesia
borderline personality disorder
you want everyone to like u, fear of abandonment
A general approach a person uses to explain and understand something, whether it's the cause of a mental illness or the creation of the world
PhD. Research, will not and can not prescribe, treat and diagnose
Trained in Freudian Analytic Techniques PSYD
In the body, treated by medicine drugs
hypnosis, it's all in the mind
2 avenues to the unconscious according to psychoanalysts
Free Association and Dream Analysis
rambling without censoring
Latent- hidden meaning
Who do not accept the idea of symptom substitution
Behavioral Therapists, they treat the exact problem
Associate an unpleasant experience with a behavior previously associated with pleasure
Like the bunny fear- undesired fear is associated with relaxation
Fear eventually subsides, they get tired of getting scared, flood of bunnies
get tokens for doing what they are asked, so to use as money
Albert Ellis's ABD theory of emotion, what causes the unpleasant psychological condition?
1. Activating event
2. Irrational belief
3. Emotional response
has to happen in order
1st antipsychotic drug for schitz
Thorazine, only positive symptoms
Phenothiazine drugs to treat schizophrenia are
What is tardive dyskinesia?
Declining body movements due to drugs for parkinson's disease showing up, can not be reversed
What are the typical antipsychotic drugs for schiz. that are also effective on the negative symptoms
Risperidone and Clozapine
Diet restriction antidepressants to avoid dangerous blood pressure.
The antianxiety drugs like xanax, and valium enhance the effectiveness of what neurotransmitter?
When a patient improves without therapy
open therapist who uses different therapy styles for treatment.
Stages of General Adaptive Syndrome(3)
Alarm Stage- changes physiological processes
Resistance stage- refuse outward signs of stress
Exhaustion stage- organ damage
Deeply thinking about something else when you are supposed to be doing something.
Characteristics of Hardy individuals (5)
Sense of control of life, Purpose of commitment, interests outside of personal life, challenge and change, and healthy.
Internal locus of control
Person feels responsible for what goes on
External locus of control
Person feels that the situation is out of control
Increased levels of cholesterol that are connected to heart disease are associated with what
LDL VLDL and hypertension can result in high temp from increasing bad blood pressure
talking to psychologist like they are good friends
overtime getting facts in behavior therapy to prove the conflict.
focusing on the worst possible outcome and negative consequences
Positive stress like marriage
Negative conclusions based on little evidence
types of stressors
significant life events - daily stresses -catastrophic
Biological explanations due to serotonin
phobias and depression
biological explanations due to norepinephrine
Depression and panic attack
biological exp. due 2 GABA
biological exp due to basal ganglia