Pharmacology Ch 4 Dr. Brown: GI drugs

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Pharmacology Ch 4 Dr. Brown: GI drugs
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2016-10-16 23:50:50
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Drugs affecting GI tract
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Pharmacology Ch 4 Dr. Brown: GI tract
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  1. Single stomach
    Monogastric
  2. Pertaining to or associated with the stomach
    Gastric
  3. Pertaining to or associated with the intestines
    Enteric
  4. Pertaining to or associated with the colon
    Colonic
  5. Forestomach includes what
    • Rumen
    • Reticulum
    • Omasum
  6. True stomach
    Abomasum
  7. Ruminants stomach break down and process the plant diet by a process knows as...
    Fermentative digestion
  8. Coarse materials are regurgitated from the rumen back into the mouth for further mastication before being reswallowed in a process called....
    Rumination
  9. Part of the nervous system that regulates bodily functions without conscious thought
    Autonomic nervous system
  10. Neurotransmitter associated with the parasympathethic nervous system
    Acetylcholine
  11. Nerves from the parasympathetic nervous system come from where?
    Cranial and caudal portion of the spinal cord
  12. Neurotransmitter associated with the sympathetic nervous system
    Norepinephrine
  13. Nerves from the sympathetic nervous system come from where?
    Thoracic and lumbar regions on the spinal cord
  14. Group of compounds produced by many different tissues in the body to exert changes within the immediate area they are released
    Prostaglandin
  15. Normally released by basophils and mast cells during inflammation or allergic reactions
    Histamine
  16. Cells in the stomach that produce hydrochloric acid
    Parietal or oxyntic cells
  17. Vomiting
    Emesis
  18. Drug that induces vomiting
    Emetic
  19. Group of neurons in the medulla of the brainstem that coordinates the vomiting reflex
    Emetic center
  20. Mostly parasympathetic nerve that innervates the GI tract and other organs in the abdominal cavity
    Vagus nerve
  21. Fight or flight part of the autonomic nervous system
    Sympathetic nervous system
  22. Rest and restore part of the autonomic nervous system
    Parasympathetic nervous system
  23. 2 types of sympathetic nervous system receptors
    • Alpha adrenergic
    • Serotonin
  24. Specialized area of receptors that are capable of detecting toxic substances in the blood and CSF
    Chemoreceptor trigger zone
  25. In the inner ear and responsible for balance
    Vestibular apparatus
  26. Given IV or as a tablet in the eye to produce emesis, quickly in dogs by dopamine stimulation, less effective in cats
    Apomorphine

    Reversal agent: Nalxone
  27. Injectable sedative that is an effective emetic in cats
    Xylazine

    Reversal agent: Yohimbine
  28. Phenothiazine antiemetic drugs
    • Acepromazine
    • Chlorpromazine
    • Prochlorpromazine
  29. Antihistamine drugs
    • Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
    • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
  30. Anticholinergic drugs
    • Aminopentaminde
    • Atropine
  31. Metoclopramide (Reglan)
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Antiemetic, prokinetic 
    • How it works: Blocks dopamine receptors in CRTZ
    • Cons: Aspirin, sedatives, tylenol 
    • Side effects: CNS effects, constipation, diarrhea
  32. Antiemetic that blocks dopamine receptors in the CRTZ; also stimulates contractions and movement of the stomach in the normal direction; sometimes called a prokinetic agent
    Metoclopramide 

    Trade name: Reglan
  33. Cisapride
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Antiemetic, prokinetic
    • How it works: Block dopamine receptors and
    • increases smooth muscle tone 
    • Cons: Anticholinergics, anticoagulants 
    • Side effects: Seizures, diarrhea
  34. Cerenia
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effecrs
    • Use: Antiemetic  
    • How it works: Blocks substance P in the CNS
    • Cons: Liver disease 
    • Side effects: Lethargy, diarrhea
  35. Toxins produced within the bowel lumen
    Enterotoxins
  36. Decrease segemental and increase peristaltic will result in more rapid movement of ingestion along the tract = ____
    Diarrhea
  37. Imodium 
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Antidiarrheal
    • How it works: Decrease intestinal motility and reduce secretions 
    • Cons: Hypersensitive to opioids 
    • Side effects: Constipation, bloat, sedation
  38. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Antidiarrheal 
    • How it works: Soothes stomach and intestinal lining 
    • Cons: Aspirin, cats 
    • Side effects: Dark tarry stool
  39. Activated charcoal 
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Adsorbent, antidiarrheal 
    • How it works: Absorbs toxins 
    • Cons: Unprotected airways, unconsciousness 
    • Side effects: Black feces, vomiting, constipation
  40. Designed to cover the intestinal wall to form a physical barrier that protect the intestinal wall from contact with irritating r disease producing compounds
    Protectants
  41. Used to increase the fluid part of the feces making them softer and easing or promoting defecation
    Laxatives
  42. Colace
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Stool softener
    • How it works: Water and fat penetrated ingested food as it passes through the intestinal tract
    • Cons: Allergic, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance
    • Side effects: Cramping, dehydration, diarrhea
  43. Side effect of mineral oil used as a laxative
    Aspiration into the lungs
  44. Lactulose
    Use, how it works, contraindications, side effects
    • Use: Laxative, osmotic cathartic 
    • How it works: Makes intestines acidic drawing in water which loosens the stool 
    • Cons: Antacids, antibiotics
    • Side effects: Bloat, gas, dehydration
  45. How gastric glands work
    • Parietal cells: Produce HCl
    • Chief cells: Produce an enzyme precursor pepsinogen
    • Mucous cells: Produce protective mucus
    • G cells: Secrete the hormone gastrin
  46. Systemic antacids
    • Cimetidine (Tagamet)
    • Ranitidine (Zantac)
    • Famotidine (Pepcid)
    • Omeprazole
    • Misoprostol (Cytotec)
    • Sucralfate (Carafate)
  47. Systemic antacids work by...
    • Absorbed, circulate, and attach to receptors on the cells of the stomach to produce their effect 
    • Block H2 histamine receptors
  48. Decreases gastric acid by being antagonistic to stimulation of histamine receptors on the stomach cells that produce acid
    Cimetidine (Tagamet), Ranitidine (Zantac), Famotidine (Pepcid)
  49. Decreases acid production in the stomach by blocking the pump on the oxyntic cell that moves H+ ions into the stomach
    Omepreazole

    Trade name: Gastrogard
  50. Neostigmine
    Use, how it works, contraindications
    • Use: Antibloat
    • How it works: Combines with acetlycholinesterase and prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine 
    • Cons: Pregnant, allergic
  51. Metronidazole
    Use and side effects
    • Use: Diarrhea and giardia
    • Side effects: CNS
  52. Built up carbon dioxide or methane gas from the rumen
    Eructation
  53. Too much gas being trapped in the rumen
    Bloat
  54. Should vomiting be induced to a dog that ingested strong alkali liquid cleanser 3 hours ago?
    No, corrosive substance
  55. Should vomiting be induced to a cat that ingested pelleted rat bait 40 minutes ago?
    Yes
  56. Should vomiting be induced to a horse that ingested insecticide-contaminated feed 25 minutes ago?
    No, horses dont vomit
  57. Should vomiting be induced to a dog that ingested its owners heart medication and has been vomiting since?
    No, dog is already vomiting
  58. TRUE OR FALSE. Stimulation of dopamine receptors produces vomiting more frequently in cats than in dogs.
    False
  59. TRUE OR FALSE. Histamine plays and important role in vomiting caused by motion
    True
  60. TRUE OR FALSE. Prostaglandins decrease sodium bicarbonate content found in the mucus of the stomach
    False
  61. TRUE OR FALSE. Apomorphine works better in dogs when give orally than when given IV
    False
  62. TRUE OR FALSE. Ruminatorics are drugs or compounds designed to break up frothy bloat
    False
  63. TRUE OR FALSE. Cathartics are more aggressive than purgatives
    False
  64. TRUE OR FALSE. Antihistamines are generally more effective antiemetics in dogs than in cats
    True
  65. TRUE OR FALSE. Mast cell tumors can produce gastric ulcers because of the histamine they release and the gastric hyperacidity syndrome they cause
    True
  66. Along with histamine and acetylcholine, the receptor found on acid-producing cells in the stomach
    Gastrin
  67. Cells in the stomach that produce hydrochloric acid
    Parietal or oxyntic cells
  68. Straining to defecate
    Tenesmus
  69. Inflammation of the stomach
    Gastritis
  70. Drug that adheres to open ulceration sites; needs acidic environment; stimulates local production of prostaglandins; gastric "band aid"
    Sucralfate
  71. Used in cattle with frothy bloat to break up bubbles or as a laxative drug that works by breaking down surface tension on dried decal material allowing water to penetrate
    DSS
  72. Antibiotic used for treating giardiasis, known for producing neurologic side effects
    Metronidazole
  73. Antidiarrheal that increases resistance to fecal movement by increasing the segemental conractions, also decreases GI secretions
    • Loperamide
    • Diphenoxylate
  74. Antibiotic for treating colitis that derives more beneficial effect from its anti-inflammatory effect than its antimicrobial activity; broken down into the anti-inflammatory drug by the colonic bacteria
    Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
  75. Increases blood flow to the stomach, increases cell turnover, reduces stomach acid production, and is also a synthetic version of a natural compound
    Misoprostol
  76. Composed of lipase and proteinases
    Pancreatic enzyme supplements
  77. Phenothiazine tranquilizer; decreases stimulation of motion sickness receptors more in dogs than cats
    Acepromazine
  78. What type of enema should be avoided in cats
    Phosphate

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