Inorganic Chemistry Exam 4

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DianaKarlova
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311357
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Inorganic Chemistry Exam 4
Updated:
2015-11-12 04:12:15
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Inorganic Chemistry Exam Redox Oxidation Acid Base
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Chemistry
Description:
Acid and Base Reactions, Redox and Oxidation, Electron Potential
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  1. What is the vertical and horizontal trend in Binary Acid Strength? (1) HX
    Going right, the acid strength increases because the electronegativity increases. The increase makes the central atom want to pull more electrons toward itself, giving the H a partial positive charge.

    Going down a group, the acid strength increases NOT because of electronegativity, but because of the increase of the increase in bond length. As the central atom gets bigger, so does the H-X bond making it easier for the bond to break.
  2. On a predominance diagram, which side is the most protonted / has the most hydrogen's? (1) HX
    Side closest to the pH of 0
  3. What is the Pauling Rule for number of oxygens in Oxoacids? What about the charge? (2) (HO)qXOp
    • pKa = 8 - 5p
    • p=0 weak acid
    • p=1 moderate acid
    • p=2 strong acid
    • p=3 very strong acid

    You would use the charge rule after determining the pKa with the above rule. It is pKa1 + 5
  4. How would you determine the strength of the oxoacid, if both species have the same number of oxygen's attached? (2) (HO)qXOp
    Most electronegative atom is the most acidic. This is because it attracts the electrons toward itself, moving it away from the H giving it a greater partial positive charge.
  5. What is the trend in charge for metal cations? (3) M(OH)nx-
    As the charge on the metal becomes more positive, so does the acidity. This is because the interactions between the metal and water increases. The lone pairs of the oxygen are much more attracted to the metal cation giving the H a bigger partial positive charge.
  6. What is the trend in radius for metal cations? (3) M(OH)nx-
    The smaller the radius, the more the oxygen is attracted to the atom, the more acidic it is, and the higher the partial positive charge is on the hydrogen.
  7. What is the trend in electronegativity for metal cations? (3) M(OH)nx-
    The more electronegative the atom, the greater the interaction it has with water, the greater the acidity.
  8. What is the vertical and the horizontal trends for metal cations? (3) M(OH)nx-
    Going up the group, the acidity increases because the atom is much smaller, and has a greater interaction with oxygen than if it was big. (Oxygen closer to nucleus)

    Going right, that is increasing in (+) charge, that means the acidity increases. The cation is very attracted to the lone pairs of the oxygen which polarizes the O-H bond. This gives a partial positive charge on the H causing it to break away.
  9. What is the vertical and horizontal base trends in monoatomic anions? (5) Y(H2O)ny-
    As the  charge becomes more negative (left), the basicity increases. This is because of the increased attraction toward the partial positive charge on the hydrogen. Causing it to pull the hydrogen away from the oxygen producing OH.

    As the radius gets smaller (up), the basicity increases. There is a greater interaction with the water.
  10. When adding a cation to water, what is the outcomes and stipulations for a very acidic solution?
    -ppt?
    -pH
    -s & p groups
    -d groups
    -f groups
    • -no ppt
    • -pH = 0
    • -s & p = small +3, +4, +5
    • -d = > +5
    • -f = x
  11. When adding a cation to water, what is the outcomes and stipulations for a strongly acidic solution?
    -ppt?
    -pH
    -s & p groups
    -d groups
    -f groups
    • -ppt forms
    • -pH decreases
    • -s & p = large +3
    • -d = +4
    • -f = x
  12. When adding a cation to water, what is the outcomes and stipulations for a moderately acidic solution?
    -ppt?
    -pH
    -s & p groups
    -d groups
    -f groups
    • -no ppt forms
    • -pH decreases
    • -s & p = group 13
    • -d = +3
    • -f = 4
  13. When adding a cation to water, what is the outcomes and stipulations for a neutral or weak acidic solution?
    -ppt?
    -pH
    -s & p groups
    -d groups
    -f groups
    • -no ppt
    • -pH goes unchanged
    • -s & p = group 1 & 2
    • -d =+1 / +2
    • -f =+3
  14. How would you determine the basicity of oxoanions based on charge? Oxogroups? Electronegativity? (6) MOx(H2O)ny-
    The higher the negative charge, the more basic the molecule.

    Decrease in number of oxogroups, increase in basicity.

    Decrease in electronegativity, increase in basicity.
  15. How can you classify basicity of oxoanions based on charge and oxo groups? (6) MOx(H2O)ny-
    • MO1 or 2 Neutral
    • M Weakly Basic
    • M-.5 or -1 Moderately Basic
    • M<-1 Strongly Basic
  16. What is the reaction for a non acidic oxoacid cation with water? (6)
    -adding cation to water rules
    • Na2O + H2O -> NaOH
    • -increase in basicity
  17. What is the reaction for a moderatly / strongly acidic oxoacid cation with water? (6)
    -adding cation to water rules
    • Fe2O3 + H2O -> no dissolution
    • -insoluble
  18. What is the reaction for a strongly acidic oxoacid cation with water? (6)
    -adding cation to water rules
    • CO2 + H2O -> (HO)2CO
    • -acidic in H2O
  19. Trend for adding oxo groups: 
    -period 2
    -period 3
    -period 4
    -d block (7)
    Period 2 starts with 3 oxo groups if there are 0 nonbonding pairs and goes down.

    Period 3 / 4 start with 4 oxo groups if there are no nonbinding pairs.

    D block always starts with 4.
  20. Nomenclature for oxo acids. (7)
    • -ate to -ic
    • -ite to -ous
  21. What are the key differences between hard acids and soft acids? (8)
    (groups 1-12)

    • Hard Acids: (non polarizable)
    • -electronegativity (0.7-1.6)
    • -higher charge

    • Soft Acids (polarizable)
    • -electronegativity (>1.9)
    • -low charge
  22. What are the key differences between hard bases, borderline bases, and soft bases? (8)
    (groups 13-18)

    • Hard Bases (non polarizable)
    • -oxo anions, F donors

    • Borderline Bases
    • -N, Cl, Br

    • Soft Bases (polarizable)
    • -all other donors
  23. Lithophile (9)
    • Metal / nonmetal that occur as oxides, carbonates, silicates, sulfates
    • -hard acids
  24. Chalcophiles (9)
    Metals / nonmetals that occur as sulfides
  25. Siderophiles (9)
    • Metals that are elemental in their natural form.
    • -soft acids
  26. Which part of the galvanic cell gets oxidized and which side gets reduced? What direction do the electrons flow? Anions? (10)
    • Anode gets oxidized.
    • Cathode gets reduced.

    • Electrons flow from anode to cathode.
    • Anions flow from cathode to anode.
  27. How do you right galvanic cell notation? (10)
    Solid Reducing Agent / Reducing Agent in Ionic form / Oxidizing Agent in Ionic form / Oxidizing Agent Solid
  28. What is the periodic trend of best oxidizing agents and best reducing agents? (10)
    The top right contains the most electronegative atoms that are the best at oxidizing agents.

    Bottom left contains the most electropositive atoms that are best at being reducing agents.
  29. Oxidizing / Reducing trends in metals (zero oxidation and positive oxidation) (11)
    • Zero Oxidation
    • (1.9 +) no reaction with H2O
    • (1.4+) no reaction with H2O, but with H+
    • (1.4-) reacts with H2O, great reducing agent

    • Positive Oxidation
    • (1.9+) good at oxidizing
    • (1.4+) oxidizing depends on (+) charge
    • (1.4-) poor oxidizing agent
  30. Oxidation / Reduction trends in non-metals (zero oxidation state and negative oxidation state) (11)
    • Zero Oxidation State
    • (2.8+) very good oxidizing agents
    • (1.9+) not useful oxidizing agent

    • Negative Oxidation State
    • (2.8+) poor reducing agents
    • (1.9+) some reducing properties
  31. How does cell potential compare to being a better oxidizing / reducing agent? (12)
    A more positive voltage means there is a big driving force. Meaning it is a great oxidizing agent.
  32. How does the change in free energy compare to cell potential? (12)
    ΔG = -nFE

    • n = electrons transferred in the reaction
    • E = calculated voltage potential
  33. Disproportion (13)
    Redox reaction in which oxidation state is slightly raised and lowered
  34. In a Pourbaix diagram, what is the kinetic boundary? Thermodynamic boundary? Where is the oxidized / reduced form of water located? (14)
    Kinetic Boundary = redox reaction observed, outer lines

    Thermodynamic Boundary = redox favored, inner lines

    • Oxidized form of water (O2) is at the top
    • Reduced form of water (H2) is at the bottom
  35. In a Pourbaix diagram what do vertical lines mean? Horizontal lines? Diagonal lines?
    Vertical Lines: acid base reaction

    Horizontal Lines: pH-independent reaction

    Diagonal Lines: pH-dependent reaction

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