Equine2- Ophtho

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
311368
Filename:
Equine2- Ophtho
Updated:
2015-11-12 10:10:17
Tags:
vetmed equine2
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vetmed equine2
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  1. Components of the equine eye exam.
    gross exam, menace reflexes, pupillary light reflexes, dilate pupils--> auriculopalpebral nerve block--> anterior segment exam, fundic exam
  2. What are the components of the anterior segment exam?
    adnexa, retropulse globe for third eyelid exam, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, lens
  3. Shrunken, non-functional eye.
    phthisis bulbi
  4. Enlargement of the eyeball.
    Buphthalmos
  5. Describe how the menace reflex is different in newborn foals.
    it is absent in newborn foals... this is normal
  6. At what eyesight is the menace reflex positive?
    20/400
  7. How do you test the vision in an animal? (3)
    menace reflex, cottonball tracking, obstacle course
  8. What must be intact for a positive dazzle response?
    minimal function of the retina- optic nerve is intact to the level of the midbrain
  9. What is the dazzle response?
    when bright light induces squinting
  10. How do you perform the pupillary light reflex test?
    shine a light in one eye and examine both eyes for pupillary constriction (should be bilateral)
  11. What is direct PLR and consensual PLR?
    direct- stimulated pupil constricts; consensual- contralateral pupil constricts
  12. What drug do you use to dilate the pupils?
    tropicamide 1% eye drops
  13. What CN are you blocking when you do an auriculopalpebral nerve block?
    CN VII
  14. Where do you inject when performing an auriculopalpebral nerve block? (2)
    cranial to the base of the ear and over the zygomatic arch
  15. How do you perform retropulsion of the globe to examine the third eyelid?
    retract eyelids while applying digital pressure on the globe
  16. What are you examining when you perform biomicroscopy/slit lamp exam? (3)
    depth/location of corneal and lens opacities, evaluation for aqueous flare, determine depth of corneal ulcers
  17. What is aqueous flare? What causes it?
    abnormal appearance of the beam of light from the slit lamp as it travels through the anterior chambers; light is reflecting off proteins in the aqueous humor, caused by inflammation in the anterior chamber
  18. What are the components of the posterior segment examination? (5)
    retina, optic nerve, vitreous, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy
  19. _________ ophthalmoscopy is better for routine small animal fundic exam.
    Indirect
  20. What are some special ophthalmologic diagnostic techniques? (5)
    culture and susceptibilty, fluorescein staining, cytology, intraocular pressures, nasolacrimal irrigation
  21. When determining intraocular pressures, be careful...
    to NOT touch the globe!
  22. What are methods of cannulation for nasolacrimal irrigation? (2)
    normograde through ocular puncta, retrograde through nasal puncta

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