Comparative Anatomy of Larynx and Lungs

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  1. larynx-- what is it?
    organ in the neck region involved in brething, sound production, and protection of the trachea against foreign matter aspiration
  2. Larynx location
    jut below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and esophagus
  3. Larynx acts as?
    acts as a sphincter or valve to prevent the entry of foreign matter into the respiratory system; reptiles lack a secondary palate to prevent this
  4. Larynx is made up of...?
    six pieces of cartilage and intrinsic and extrinsic muscles

    Muscles: intrinsic are responsible for controlling sound production, and extrinsic are involved in support and position the larynx in the trachea

    Cartilage: three unpaired--thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis; three paired-- arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform
  5. Lungs
    elastic sacs that expand on inhalation and are a site for gaseous exchange situated in the thoracic cavity

    • --> elastic sacs that expand on inhalation and are a site for gaseous exchange situated in the thoracic cavity
    • --> they develop from the ventral respiratory tract with the larynx located at the top
  6. Fish
    - larynx
    Climbing perch (anabas scandens): acquired a respiratory diverticulum or muscular sphincter off of the pharynx

    Indian siluroid fish (Saccobranchus): acquired long diverticulum leading into an internal air reservoir--this contains no valves to prevent water entry

    muscular sphincter closes in water and opens in times of drought to enable a swallowing of air

    most primitive larynx (in polypterus)  functioned as a simple sphincter to prevent the intrusion of foreign matter
  7. Fish larynx part two
    the most primitive larynx was found in polypterus and consisted of a muscular sphincter to guard against water entry

    African (Protopterus) and Australian (neocaratdus)  lungfish: both possess discrete muscle fibers to draw apart vulvar margins to produce active dilations
  8. Fish 
    - lungs
    have gills for gas exchange in water

    lungfish contain lungs derived from the swim bladder; inner surface contains many honeycomb-like cavities supplied with blood vessels where gas exchange occurs
  9. Amphibians
    - larynx
    acquired lateral cartilages that form bars on either side of the glottis to which dilator muscles insert
  10. Amphibian
    - lungs
    very primitive with few internal septa and possess large alveoli; incomplete septa divide the lung

    the trachea stops at lung junction and does not divide into the secondary tubes

    Lungs divided by secondary septa that surrounds the very large space where gas exchange happens

    there is a very slow diffusion rate in the lungs, which is why most are able to diffuse gases through the skin
  11. Reptiles
    - larynx
    possess a cartilaginous ring that gives origins to the dilator muscles and can be found between the glottis and the trachea
  12. Reptiles
    - lungs
    aquatic turtles have developed a permeable skin and a modified cloaca to increase the area for gas exchange
  13. Retiles
    - snake lungs:
    lungs are simple, sac-like structures with alveoli in the walls

    less respirratory efficiency
  14. Retiles
    - crocodiles lungs:
    many lizards/turtles have more partitions within= more surface area for gas exchange
  15. Birds
    - larynx
    Cartilaginous ring that gives origin to the dilator muscles and is found between the glottis and trachea

  16. syrinx
    syrinx: membranous structure at the lower end of the trachea; where the bird's song is produced (kind of like a voice box)
  17. Birds
    - lungs
    lungs connected to voluminous air sacs

    Tertiary bronchi penetrate lung mass and contain air capillaries in the walls; capillaries have large surface area and come in contact with blood capillaries connected to the heart

    no alveoli: they use mesobranhi
  18. Mammals
    - larynx
    cartilaginous ring that gives origin to the dilator muscles and is found between glottis and trachea

  19. Mammals
    - lungs
    contain many alveoli on the ends of the bronchioles

    most developed
Card Set:
Comparative Anatomy of Larynx and Lungs
2015-11-24 01:05:00
Test Three: Seitchik
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