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How do you diagnose a foot abscess?
hoof testers, nerve block, rads to rule out more serious problems
How do you treat a foot abscess?
localize and expose the abscess--> drain,treat locally with antiseptic, provide protection
What is the goal of treating a subsolar abscess?
provide ventral drainage without damaging deep tissues and bone
If the source/abscess is not immediately evident, what can you do to localize and drain a foot abscess?
soak in epsom salts and poultice to soften and draw out pus
How do you diagnose a puncture wound of the frog?
[may be difficult if no foreign body] trim frog, place flexible probe and radiograph with probe in place (fistulogram)
How do you treat a puncture wound of the frog/ navicular bursitis?
[emergency] debride, flush, protect, regional limb perfusion with antibiotics (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones), flush navicular bursa
What is a complication of regional limb perfusion?
cellulitis (worst with fluoroquinolones)
Septic pedal osteitis usually results in...
demineralization of the distal phalanx (focal area of radiolucency); may develop into sequestrum.
________ pedal osteitis is more painful than ________ pedal osteitis.
Septic pedal osteitis is diagnosed by... (2)
abaxial nerve block positive, radiographs definitive
Non-septic pedal osteitis is commonly secondary to _________.
Primary non-septic pedal osteitis is associated with __________.
severe and chronic sole bruising
How do you diagnose non-septic pedal osteitis?
hoof tester, palmar digital nerve block positive, radiographs
How do you treat non-septic pedal osteitis?
- [depends on cause] chronic bruised soles- reduce inflammations, protective shoeing
- chronic laminitis- hoof care, protect sole, derotate if foundered
Hemorrhage b/w corium of the sole and the sole.
What are the types of sole bruising? (3)
- dry- appear as red stains
- moist-accumulation of serum
- suppurative- become infected
What is the most common cause of corns?
shoes left on too long (txt by remove shoes and pare out area)
How do you treat sole bruising? (3)
decrease concussion to sole, NSAIDs, protect sole with full pad or wide-web shoe
What are the goals of treatment for hoof cracks? (2)
remove pressure and immobilize the edges
Methods of treating hoof cracks? (6)
corrective trimming, bar shoes with clips, grooving, hoof wall resections, hoof wall clamping, reinforcing material
Most of the vibrations/impact occur in the _________; therefore, absorption of impact occurs by... (2)
foot; deformation of hoof wall, venous plexuses in foot
How does the limb function to absorb the forces and vibrations place on the limb during the stance phase?
[GRF]extension of joints, stretching of ligaments and tendons, compression of joints, [vibration] absorbed by soft tissues of digit and distal joints
The majority of forelimb lamenesses are _______ type; most forelimb lameness can be identified by the ________.
impact; head nod- "down on sound'
Lunging a horse usually exacerbates the lameness in the limb that is _________.
on the inside of the circle
Lunging a horse on a hard surface help you identify... (2)
foot lameness and lameness with a bone/joint component
Lunging a horse on a soft surface help you to identify... (1)
tendon and ligament injury.
The tuber coxae normally goes _____ during the stance phase (foot on ground) on the same leg and goes _______ during the suspension phase (foot up, contralateral foot on ground) of the same leg.
The __________ lameness is the most common kind of hindlimb lameness; with this type of lameness, there is a noticeable _________.
pushoff; hip drop
The __________ is a less common form of hindlimb lameness; with this type, there is a noticeable ________.
impact; hip hike
The identify a hip drop, it is helpful to use _________, which should be placed _________.
white tape on each hip; laterally
What do limb flexions help you identify? (2)
articular lesions and high suspensory injuries
Flexion of the ___________ gives the most false positive flexion results that respond to regional anesthesia.
The ____________ can consistently detect a lameness approximately one AAEP grade earlier than experienced clinicians.
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