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What is race?
¨to specify groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics, such as skin colour.
Race is also...
category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics, such as skin colour, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes
What is an Ethnic Group?
a community or population made up of people who share a common cultural background or descent.
What are the FIVE characteristics that an ethnic group would share?
- 1. Cultural traits, such as language, clothing, holidays, or religious practices
- 2. A sense of community
- 3. A feeling of ethnocentrism
- 4. Ascribed ( is the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life) membership from birth
- 5. Territoriality, or the tendency to occupy a distinct geographic area
What is Prejudice?
¨A negative attitude based on preconceived notions about members of selected groups.
What is racial prejudice?
beliefs that certain racial groups are innately inferior to others
What is a Stereotypes
Stereotypes are characteristics ascribed (assigned) to groups of people involving gender, race, national origin of a particular groups.
What are the three theories of prejudice?
- 1. Frustration aka Scape goat
- 2. Social learning
- 3. Authoritarian personality
Frustration / Scape goat can be further broken down as...
Scapegoat theory says that prejudice is a way for people to blame others for their problems.
¨aggression hypothesis states that people who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve respond with a pattern of aggression towards others – a scape goat.
Social learning prejudice theory states...
- This is the way one is socialized by parents.
- (How one learns)
- This is how you were socialized
Authoritarian personality in the prejudice theory would be???
¨excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, high level of superstition and rigid stereotypic thinking.
Submissive to authority, extreme anger toward out-groups and conservative religious and political beliefs.
Actions or practices of dominant group members that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group.
What is this called?
What are the TWO forms of Discrimination
¤Legal discrimination: encoded in laws
¤Informal discrimination: entrenched in social customs and institutions
What is Racism?
Ideas that implies the superiority of one social group over another on the basis of biological or cultural characteristics.
Together with the power to put these beliefs into practice in a way that denies or excludes minority women and men.
What are the FOUR type of Racism?
- 1. Overt Racism
- 2. Polite Racism
- 3. Subliminal Racism
- 4. Institutionalized Racism
What is Overt Racism?
Deliberate and highly personal attacks
(redneck or hate racism)
What is Polite Racism?
Describes an attempt to disguise a dislike of others through behaviour that is outwardly nonprejudicial.
Very discrete and suttle
Subliminal Racism is???
Described as unconscious racism that occurs when there is a conflict of values.
Person does not realize they are racist
(Expressed opposition by the majority to Canada’s immigration laws, affirmative action, etc.)
The established rules, policies and practices within an institution produce differential treatment of various groups based on race.
(Ex. Firemen/Policemen bc they are required to be a certain height and weight and working for this force is an institution)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
1. The development of racial and ethnic labels and identities is typically a process of negotiation.
2. Outsiders may impose a new label on members of a group. Group members then reject, accept, or modify this new label.
3. If the social context changes, the negotiation process begins again.
The anti-Semite creates the Jew” (Sartre, 1965 : 43).
An example of a Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives would be...
keeping in mind the following key notes?
The development of the label
Outsiders imposing the label on a group
Group member then accept / reject label
if social context changes then negotiation be gin again...
¨Labeling of the indigenous peoples of North America by European settlers. Christopher Columbus assumed he had reach India, therefore he called the indigenous peoples “Indians” and the misnomer stuck – not only among European settlers but also among many indigenous peoples themselves. ¨In time, an increasing number of indigenous people began to reject the term Indian
Who coined the term Symbolic ethnicity?
Symbolic ethnicity is a term coined by:
German-born American sociologist
What is Symbolic ethnicity
A nostalgic allegiance... a love for and pride in a tradition that can be felt without having to be incorporated in everyday behavior.
Example: Irish Canadians celebrating St. Patrick’s Day. But they where not born in Ireland
Functionalist Perspectives is for society to...
Advocates assimilation – a process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture.
This contributes to the stability of society by minimizing group differences that otherwise might result in hostility and violence.
What are the FOUR types of assimilation according to the Functionalist Perspectives?
Remember the Functionalist wants society to run smoothly by having the inferior ethnic group assimilate into society
- 1. Cultural assimilation
- 2. Structural assimilation
- 3. Biological assimilation
- 4. Psychological assimilation
Members of an ethnic group adopt dominant group traits such as language, dress, values, religion and food preferences.
In Canada this was rejected by the Aboriginal people and the Quebecois
Structural assimilation is...
occurs when members of subordinate racial or ethnic groups gain acceptance in everyday social interactions.
occurs when members of one group marry those of other social or ethnic groups.
Involves a change in racial or ethnic self-identification on the part of an individual.
What is the Conflict Perspectives on race and ethnic conflict
Focus is on economic stratification (social classes are separated) and access to power in their analysis of race and ethnic relations.
Racial and ethnic conflict is largely the result of
Colonialism: People from one country invade another, gaining control over the native population and changing/destroying their culture.
What is Internal colonialism?
Preventing the assimilation of the subordinate racial or ethnic groups by segregating them residentially, occupationally, and in social contacts ranging from friendship to marriage.
What is an example of Internal colonialism
In Canada, the victims of internal colonialism are primarily Aboriginal peoples, the Quebecois, and black people
Victims of internal colonialism:
- 1. Are forced to exist in a society other than their own.
- 2. Have been kept out of the economic and political mainstream
- 3. Have been subjected to severe attacks on their own culture, which may lead to its extinction
What is The Split Labour Market Theory?
And which theorist would have this perspective?
When low-wage workers of one race and high-wage workers of another race compete for the same jobs, high-wage workers are likely to resent the presence of low-wage competitors and conflict is bound to result.
Which theorist would have the perspective of the split market theory?
Conflict theorist of course! lol
Name the TWO sectors in The Split Labour Market Theory
1. Primary Sector (upper tier): composed of higher paid workers in secure jobs (usually dominant group)
2. Secondary sector (lower tier): composed of lower-paid workers in jobs with little security and hazardous working conditions (often the subordinate group)
List an example of The Split Labour Market Theory?
Asian immigration in Canada
Allowed into Canada from 1850s to 1920s to provide scarce services and cheap labour in lumbering, mining, and railway construction.
15,000 Chinese men allowed into Canada to complete construction of Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR).
Chinese paid half the wages of white workers.
¨Minority women (women of colour, immigrant women, aboriginal women) doubly disadvantaged.
Who's perspective is this?
- you got it...
- Feminist Perspectives
True of false?
Where Aboriginal children placed in residential boarding schools to facilitate their assimilation into the dominant culture
¨1985 and 1991 non-discrimination laws enacted.
True or false
???? Immigration and Refugee Protection Act implemented: selection criteria based on attributes of human capital and skills of potential immigrants – recent changes include ??? as well
2002 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act implemented: selection criteria based on attributes of human capital and skills of potential immigrants – recent changes include age as well