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What is Culture?
is the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects and behaviour.
We learn culture from our parents
The disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own.
What is this called?
¨The tendency to regard one’s own culture and group as the standard – and thus superior – whereas all other groups are seen as inferior.
What is this called and state an example?
It is called - Ethnocentrism
Example - ¨In Canada, the French and British colonizers believed that the Native population had no culture, therefore they felt it their obligation to give them one.
¨The belief that the behaviours and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards.
What is this called or referred to as ?
¨We can find the similarities that will help us to understand it better but not to judge it against another culture.
How Does Culture Develop
- Through the need to survive.
¨Culture is ?????????? for our individual survival and our ????????? with other people.
¨Culture is essential for our individual survival and our communication with other people.
How does culture develop?
- According to the:
- The Sapir-Whorf Thesis (remember the triangle)
- 1. Experience
- 2. Conceptualization(thought)
- 3. Verbalization
Functionalist Perspective on Sociological Analysis of Culture
Culture helps people meet their biological needs (including food and procreation), instrumental needs (including law and education) and integrative needs (including religion and art).
Societies in which people share a common language and core values are more likely to have harmony
Conflict Perspective on Sociological Analysis of Culture
Are based on the assumption that social life is a continuous struggle in which members of powerful groups seek to control scarce resources.
Values and norms are created and sustain the privileged position of the powerful in society while excluding others.
¨Marx stated that ideas are cultural creations of a society’s most powerful members
¨?????? theorists would see culture as a Paternalistic ideology perpetuated to keep women subjugated beneath men.
¨Feminist theorists would see culture as a Paternalistic ideology perpetuated to keep women subjugated beneath men.
¨?????? perspective, symbols make communication with others possible because they provide people with shared meanings and people create, maintain, and modify culture as they go about their everyday activities.
symbolic Interactionist perspective, symbols make communication with others possible because they provide people with shared meanings and people create, maintain, and modify culture as they go about their everyday activities.
What is Social Structures?
institutions (economy, politics, and religion) and the social practices (such as rules and social roles) that make up a society that organize and establish limits on people’s behaviour.
What are the Elements of Social Structures
- Cultural Universals
- Formal Norms
- Informal Norms
What is Cultural Universals?
These are practices that are universal in all cultures.
Example: wedding rituals, death rituals
What is an Rites of passage?
These are cultural ceremonies marking the transition from one stage of life to another.
They involve elaborate procedures, are conducted in public and no variation from prescribed practice is allowed.
Example - completing highschool
What is a Symbols?
Anything that meaningfully represents something else
Example - Jade in China or Gold in some cultures
What is a Formal Norms?
Formal Norms: written down and specify strict punishment
- Laws are an example of formal norms
What is an Informal Norms?
Generally understood but not recorded.
Example - how one behaves in a college level classroom
What is a More?
¨Mores: Norms that are extremely important to the group. Murder, rape, child abuse; “Right vs. Wrong
- Example - man wearing a shirt but no pantsOr smoking a cigarette inside a restaurant. just wrong
What is a Folkways?
- Norms that govern everyday behaviour.
- “Right vs. Rude”Example - man wearing pants but no shirt. can be seen as rude
What is Globalization?
The process by which formerly separate economies, nation-states, and cultures are becoming tied together and people are becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence.
Expansion of international trade and investment
?????????? is a schoolboy in New Delhi listening to Usher on his MP3 player as he rushes to pull on his Levis, wolf down a bowl of Kellogg’s Basmati Flakes, and say goodbye to his parents in Hindi because he’s late for his English-language school.
What is this an example of?
Globalization is a schoolboy in New Delhi listening to Usher on his MP3 player as he rushes to pull on his Levis, wolf down a bowl of Kellogg’s Basmati Flakes, and say goodbye to his parents in Hindi because he’s late for his English-language school
What is McDonalization????
the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more of society.
Who is the author of the term McDonaldization?
McDonaldization The author of this term is:
Sociologist George Ritzer
What is Rationalization?
The application of the most efficient means (cell phone) to achieve given goals, and the unintended, negative consequences of doing so (example: hectic lifestyles).
Meaning things are put into our lives to make it easier but make if more negative.
Example - Cell phone give us access to everything all at once. Boss always know you are online.
?????? is the epitome of rationalization today.
McDonald’s is the epitome of rationalization today.
McDonaldization is the rationalization of lunch
does the Rationalization of lunch
Dehumanized staff and customers?
Canada is considered an ????? ??????
¨Canada is considered an Ethnic Mosaic
United States, Australia and New Zealand are considered ????? ?????
¨The United States, Australia and New Zealand are considered Melting Pots
What is the differenct between Ethnic Mosaic and Melting pot?
- 1. Some commentators say that Canadians lack a distinct culture.
- 2. Canadians are more likely than Americans to think of themselves in hyphenated terms (“Italian-Canadian”).
- 3. Canadian culture is characterized by a relatively high degree of tolerance and respect for diversity
Feel strongly about the right to live in a society that allows its citizens to be detached from ideology and critical of organizations, and not to feel obliged to be jingoistic or sentimentally patriotic.
Canadians’ lack of nationalism is, in many ways, a distinguishing feature of the country