14 Psy 101

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ECCammi
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14 Psy 101
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2015-11-21 13:14:55
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Psycology
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Notes from pages 425-451 and class
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  1. Developmental psychology
    The study of continuity and change across the life span
  2. Zygote
    A fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both  sperm and an egg
  3. Germinal stage
    The 2 week period of prenatal development that begins at conception
  4. Embryonic stage
    The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 2nd week until about the 8th week
  5. What are the three prenatal stages?
    Germinal, embryonic and fetal stages
  6. Fetal stage
    The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 9th week until birth
  7. Myelination
    The formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron
  8. Teratogens
    Agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses
  9. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy
  10. Why are human beings born with underdeveloped brains?
    • So they can continue to develop farther than it could have in the womb, otherwise the head would be too big to give birth to
    • It allows us to adapt better to whatever environment we'll be born into
  11. How does the uterine environment affect the unborn child?
    • The placenta physically links the bloodstreams of the mother and fetus
    • What mom eats baby eats
    • Teratogens like food, drinks, drugs, etc are introduced into the womb
  12. What can a fetus hear?
    • Mom's heart beat, gastrointestinal sounds, voice.
    • We know because newborns react to things like the mother's voice or things she read as if it were familiar
  13. What do newborns see?
    • Newborns see significantly less far away things than adults (600 vs 20 feet)
    • 8-12 inches seems to be the best, it is also the distance between a nursing baby and a mother's face
  14. What does developmental psychology study?
    Continuity and change across the life span
  15. Describe the prenatal stage of development
    • It begins when a  sperm fertilizers an egg to produce a zygote
    • The Zygote (which contains chromosomes from the egg and the sperm) develops into an embryo at 2 weeks
    • Around 8 weeks the embryo becomes a fetus
  16. Why are infants born with reflexes?
    • Rooting reflex: the tendency for infants to move their mouths toward any object that touches the cheek.
    • Sucking reflex: Tendency to suck any object that enters the mouth
    • Behaviors likes these help the child breast feed. These, and other reflexes disappear after the first few months as they learn to execute more sophisticated motor behavior
  17. Infancy
    The stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months
  18. Motor development
    The emergence of the ability to execute physical action
  19. Reflexes
    Specific patterns of moot responses that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation
  20. Cephaocaudal rule
    The top to bottom rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet
  21. Proximodistal rule
    The inside to outside rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery
  22. What are the three essential tasks of cognitive development?
    • Between infancy and adulthood children must come to understand three important things
    • 1. How the physical world works
    • 2. How their minds represent the world
    • 3. How other minds represent the world
  23. Cognitive development
    The emergence of the ability to think and understand
  24. Sensorimotor stage
    A stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy in which infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it
  25. Schemas
    Theories about the way the world works
  26. Assimilation
    The process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations
  27. What happens at the Sensorimotor stage?
    Infants experiences world through movement and senses, develops schemas, begins to act intentionally and shows evidence of understanding object permanence
  28. Accommodation
    The process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information
  29. Object permanence
    The belief that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible
  30. Childhood
    The stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until adolescence which begins between 12 and 14 years of age
  31. Preoperational stage
    The stage of cognitive development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years, during which children develop a preliminary understanding of the physical world
  32. When do children acquire a theory of object permanence?
    By the time they are about 4 months old.
  33. Concrete operational stage
    The stage of cognitive development that begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years, during which children learn how various actions or operations can affect or transform "concrete" objects
  34. Conservation
    The notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance
  35. Formal operational stage
    The final stage of cognitive development that begins around the age of 11, during which children learn to reason about abstract concepts
  36. Egocentrism
    The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different people
  37. What distinguishes the Preoperational and concrete operational stages?
    Preoperational stage children do not understand the idea of conservation. Pour a glass of milk into a taller, thinner glass and suddenly the child will think there is more in that glass
  38. What is the essential feature of the formal operational stage?
    Children are able to consider abstract thoughts like freedom, liberty, things that could have happened but didn't, etc.
  39. What does the false-belief task show?
    It shows that children do not realize that other people don't see what they see, and they don't realize that other people don't know what they know
  40. Theory of mind
    The understanding that human behavior is guided by mental representations
  41. Do children understand emotions better than beliefs?
    Children who know another person doesn't know what they know might still believe they feel the same way. A child knows Red Riding Hood has no idea the wolf is in the house, but they still expect her to feel fear.
  42. Which children have special difficulty acquiring a theory of mind?
    • Children with autism
    • Deaf children without sign language speaking parents
  43. What did Piaget get wrong?
    • That children graduate from steps in developmental psychology the same way they would graduate from different grades
    • The ages that these transitions happened. People are still finding new tests that question the timeline of cognitive milestones
  44. How does culture affect cognitive development?
    11-19 is confusing for English speaking children because these are randomly constructed differently. But in languages like Chinese they are like the other numbers and easier for children to grasp as far as counting/math goes
  45. How does an infant identify the primary caregiver?
    Children keep a sort of mental tally on who responses the most and associates that person as the primary caregiver
  46. How is attachment assessed?
    With a strange situation test
  47. Attachment
    The emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers
  48. Strange situation
    A behavior test developed by Mary Ainsworth that tis used to determine a child's attachment style
  49. Temperments
    Characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity
  50. Internal working model of relationships
    A set of beliefs about the self, the primary caregiver and the relationship between them
  51. How do caregivers influence an infant's attachment style?
    A parent's sensitivity and responsiveness are a cause of the infant's attachment style
  52. According to Piaget what three shifts characterize moral development?
    • 1. Thinking shifts from realism to relativism
    • 2. Thinking shifts from prescriptions to principles
    • 3. Thinking shifts from outcomes to intentions
  53. Preconventional stage
    A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor
  54. Conventional stage
    A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
  55. Postconventional stage
    A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values
  56. What are Kohlberg's three stages of moral development?
    • Preconventional stage
    • Conventional stage
    • Postconventional stage
  57. Do moral judgments come before or after emotional reactions?
    Moral intuitions perspective suggests that we consider things moral or immoral based on our reaction to it. This theory suggests incest is wrong because it disgusts us and not the other way around
  58. What happens when we see others suffer?
    Research shows that watching someone suffer activates the very same brain regions that are activated when we suffer ourselves
  59. Despite having a limited range of vision
    Infants can see and remember objects that appear within it.
  60. How do babies learn to control their bodies?
    From top down and from the center out
  61. How do people get along with each other?
    By learning and obeying moral principles
  62. What might cause moral objections?
    Our emotional reactions to the suffering of others
  63. Single cell division, starting from a zygote
  64. Carnegie's stages of human development
  65. Even if at the time of conception there are drugs, alcohol or stress involved with either parent
    The development of the baby can be negatively affected. This goes on for the rest of the pregnancy.
  66. Development begins when
    A sperm and egg unite, forming a Zygote and determining gender
  67. How long does it take for one cell to become two?
    • 18 hours. 18 more for it to become 4, 4 more to become 8.
    • Embryos take a long time to develop. The pace picks up though and the peak of development the nervous system makes 250,000 cells a minute. Around 60 days to 120 days this many embryo cells are made.
  68. Morula
    The embryo is called this as it develops because it ooks like a berry and morula means berry in latin
  69. How long does it take before testosterone affects the embryo?
    2 weeks, then the testosterone will make them start developing as a boy instead of as a girl (default gender)
  70. Neurongenisis stops past critical development except in the
    Hippocampus where ~28,000 neurons are made a month.
  71. When does fluid intelligence mainly emerge?
    Between 21 and 25 years old. Then you lose cells and crystallized intelligence is what you rely on
  72. What cells remain in a person?
    The cells that they use. Otherwise the brain cleans them up and throws them out.
  73. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the result of
    • Ethanol exposure dying development.
    • There is no lower limit. Any amount of alcohol could be enough to severely damage
  74. Around 6-8 months in the womb the baby
    Can be stimulated by fast music, or calmed by slow music
  75. From birth babies rely on
    Vision, they use the visual system to further the attachment to people in their environment.
  76. Face scanning
    From the time we are babies we have a particular face scanning pattern that pays attention to the eyes as well as establishes the geometry of the face.
  77. Gibsons' visual cliff test
    • Babies were coaxed by their mothers to come towards them but they were on a table with Plexiglas so it looked like a 3 foot drop.
    • Babies mostly initially refused. Some would go towards their mother when she insisted but did not break eye contact as they went and didn't look down
  78. Assimilation refers to
    The ability to apply schema to new things.
  79. Any relationship can be
    Incomplete. There needs to be more than just nutrition involved. There also needs to be dialogue, meaningful conversation etc.
  80. Nom Chompsky
    Fuckin' rekt Skinners in an argument. He pointed out that children could put together novel sentences just by being exposed to some language. This destroyed behaviorism.

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