The study of continuity and change across the life span
A fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both sperm and an egg
The 2 week period of prenatal development that begins at conception
The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 2nd week until about the 8th week
What are the three prenatal stages?
Germinal, embryonic and fetal stages
The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 9th week until birth
The formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron
Agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy
Why are human beings born with underdeveloped brains?
So they can continue to develop farther than it could have in the womb, otherwise the head would be too big to give birth to
It allows us to adapt better to whatever environment we'll be born into
How does the uterine environment affect the unborn child?
The placenta physically links the bloodstreams of the mother and fetus
What mom eats baby eats
Teratogens like food, drinks, drugs, etc are introduced into the womb
What can a fetus hear?
Mom's heart beat, gastrointestinal sounds, voice.
We know because newborns react to things like the mother's voice or things she read as if it were familiar
What do newborns see?
Newborns see significantly less far away things than adults (600 vs 20 feet)
8-12 inches seems to be the best, it is also the distance between a nursing baby and a mother's face
What does developmental psychology study?
Continuity and change across the life span
Describe the prenatal stage of development
It begins when a sperm fertilizers an egg to produce a zygote
The Zygote (which contains chromosomes from the egg and the sperm) develops into an embryo at 2 weeks
Around 8 weeks the embryo becomes a fetus
Why are infants born with reflexes?
Rooting reflex: the tendency for infants to move their mouths toward any object that touches the cheek.
Sucking reflex: Tendency to suck any object that enters the mouth
Behaviors likes these help the child breast feed. These, and other reflexes disappear after the first few months as they learn to execute more sophisticated motor behavior
The stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months
The emergence of the ability to execute physical action
Specific patterns of moot responses that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation
The top to bottom rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet
The inside to outside rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery
What are the three essential tasks of cognitive development?
Between infancy and adulthood children must come to understand three important things
1. How the physical world works
2. How their minds represent the world
3. How other minds represent the world
The emergence of the ability to think and understand
A stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy in which infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it
Theories about the way the world works
The process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations
What happens at the Sensorimotor stage?
Infants experiences world through movement and senses, develops schemas, begins to act intentionally and shows evidence of understanding object permanence
The process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information
The belief that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible
The stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until adolescence which begins between 12 and 14 years of age
The stage of cognitive development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years, during which children develop a preliminary understanding of the physical world
When do children acquire a theory of object permanence?
By the time they are about 4 months old.
Concrete operational stage
The stage of cognitive development that begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years, during which children learn how various actions or operations can affect or transform "concrete" objects
The notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance
Formal operational stage
The final stage of cognitive development that begins around the age of 11, during which children learn to reason about abstract concepts
The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different people
What distinguishes the Preoperational and concrete operational stages?
Preoperational stage children do not understand the idea of conservation. Pour a glass of milk into a taller, thinner glass and suddenly the child will think there is more in that glass
What is the essential feature of the formal operational stage?
Children are able to consider abstract thoughts like freedom, liberty, things that could have happened but didn't, etc.
What does the false-belief task show?
It shows that children do not realize that other people don't see what they see, and they don't realize that other people don't know what they know
Theory of mind
The understanding that human behavior is guided by mental representations
Do children understand emotions better than beliefs?
Children who know another person doesn't know what they know might still believe they feel the same way. A child knows Red Riding Hood has no idea the wolf is in the house, but they still expect her to feel fear.
Which children have special difficulty acquiring a theory of mind?
Children with autism
Deaf children without sign language speaking parents
What did Piaget get wrong?
That children graduate from steps in developmental psychology the same way they would graduate from different grades
The ages that these transitions happened. People are still finding new tests that question the timeline of cognitive milestones
How does culture affect cognitive development?
11-19 is confusing for English speaking children because these are randomly constructed differently. But in languages like Chinese they are like the other numbers and easier for children to grasp as far as counting/math goes
How does an infant identify the primary caregiver?
Children keep a sort of mental tally on who responses the most and associates that person as the primary caregiver
How is attachment assessed?
With a strange situation test
The emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers
A behavior test developed by Mary Ainsworth that tis used to determine a child's attachment style
Characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity
Internal working model of relationships
A set of beliefs about the self, the primary caregiver and the relationship between them
How do caregivers influence an infant's attachment style?
A parent's sensitivity and responsiveness are a cause of the infant's attachment style
According to Piaget what three shifts characterize moral development?
1. Thinking shifts from realism to relativism
2. Thinking shifts from prescriptions to principles
3. Thinking shifts from outcomes to intentions
A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor
A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values
What are Kohlberg's three stages of moral development?
Do moral judgments come before or after emotional reactions?
Moral intuitions perspective suggests that we consider things moral or immoral based on our reaction to it. This theory suggests incest is wrong because it disgusts us and not the other way around
What happens when we see others suffer?
Research shows that watching someone suffer activates the very same brain regions that are activated when we suffer ourselves
Despite having a limited range of vision
Infants can see and remember objects that appear within it.
How do babies learn to control their bodies?
From top down and from the center out
How do people get along with each other?
By learning and obeying moral principles
What might cause moral objections?
Our emotional reactions to the suffering of others
Single cell division, starting from a zygote
Carnegie's stages of human development
Even if at the time of conception there are drugs, alcohol or stress involved with either parent
The development of the baby can be negatively affected. This goes on for the rest of the pregnancy.
Development begins when
A sperm and egg unite, forming a Zygote and determining gender
How long does it take for one cell to become two?
18 hours. 18 more for it to become 4, 4 more to become 8.
Embryos take a long time to develop. The pace picks up though and the peak of development the nervous system makes 250,000 cells a minute. Around 60 days to 120 days this many embryo cells are made.
The embryo is called this as it develops because it ooks like a berry and morula means berry in latin
How long does it take before testosterone affects the embryo?
2 weeks, then the testosterone will make them start developing as a boy instead of as a girl (default gender)
Neurongenisis stops past critical development except in the
Hippocampus where ~28,000 neurons are made a month.
When does fluid intelligence mainly emerge?
Between 21 and 25 years old. Then you lose cells and crystallized intelligence is what you rely on
What cells remain in a person?
The cells that they use. Otherwise the brain cleans them up and throws them out.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is the result of
Ethanol exposure dying development.
There is no lower limit. Any amount of alcohol could be enough to severely damage
Around 6-8 months in the womb the baby
Can be stimulated by fast music, or calmed by slow music
From birth babies rely on
Vision, they use the visual system to further the attachment to people in their environment.
From the time we are babies we have a particular face scanning pattern that pays attention to the eyes as well as establishes the geometry of the face.
Gibsons' visual cliff test
Babies were coaxed by their mothers to come towards them but they were on a table with Plexiglas so it looked like a 3 foot drop.
Babies mostly initially refused. Some would go towards their mother when she insisted but did not break eye contact as they went and didn't look down
Assimilation refers to
The ability to apply schema to new things.
Any relationship can be
Incomplete. There needs to be more than just nutrition involved. There also needs to be dialogue, meaningful conversation etc.
Fuckin' rekt Skinners in an argument. He pointed out that children could put together novel sentences just by being exposed to some language. This destroyed behaviorism.