History revision YEAR 9
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Why is the Spanish Armada battle so famous?
The Armada is famous because at that time England was a small nation with a little navy and they were facing the greatest power in the world (Spain). They defeated Spain, with help from Mother Nature. It marked the beginning of England's mastery of the seas.
Why was the Spanish Armada launched against England?
The Spanish monarch, Philip II, was angry that Queen Elizabeth had not punished Sir Francis Drake and other English seadogs for plundering Spanish ships. Philip was a devout Catholic. He felt it was his duty to invade and conquer England in order to convert the country back to the Church of Rome.
Where did the Spanish fleet meet the English fleet?
English channel. There was far more Spanish boats than English, yet the English still defeated them.
How did Queen Elizabeth I's ships help defeat the Spanish Armada?
The English filled eighty ships with flammable material and set fire to them. They sent in fireships to panic the Spaniards and scatter the Armada's formation. The Spanish panicked and fled to the open sea, straight into the gunfire of the waiting English.
What else aided the English in defeating the Armada?
An important reason why the English were able to defeat the Armada was that the wind blew the Spanish ships northwards. Strong winds and terrible rain forced many ships onto rocks nearIreland.
The English celebrated their victory with a medal saying 'God Blew and they were Scattered'
Put the following reasons for the failure of the Spanish Armada in order of importance.
- a) Attack by English fire ships at Calais on July 28th
- b) Storms off Ireland and Scotland from August to October
- c) Rotten food on board the Spanish fleet
- d) The death of Santa Cruz, the Spanish Admiral
- e) The battle formation of the Spanish fleet
- f) Spanish shortage of ammunition
- g) The Spanish had poor maps
- h) Drakes attack on Cadiz in 1587
- i) Failure of the Spanish to get a deep water port in the Netherlands
- j) The tactics adopted by the English fleet
- 1. Attack by English fire ships at Calais on July 28th
- 2. Storms off Ireland and Scotland from August to October
- 3. Spanish shortage of ammunition
- 4. The tactics adopted by the English fleet
- 5. Failure of the Spanish to get a deep water port in the Netherlands
- 6. The battle formation
- 7. Rotten food on board Spanish ships
- 8. Drakes attack on Cadiz in 1587
- 9. The death of Santa Cruz, the Spanish Admiral
- 10. The Spanish had poor maps
What happened on the 20th of may?
Set sail from LISBON
What happened on the 9th of June?
- Fleet dispered by storm off Corrunna.
- Month's delay to re-group
What happened on the 19th of July?
English sighted the Armada off Cornwall. Beacon fires relayed the news to Plymouth and London
What happened from the 19-27th of July?
Nine days battle up the English Channel. The Armada adopted a cresent formation with the English attacking from behind
What happened on the 27th of July?
Spanish fleet anchored off Calais hoping for a week o take on fresh supplies
What happened on the 28th of July?
Armada attacked in darkness by eight fireships (each english commander has given up his oldest ship) In panic, many of the Spanish cut there anchors and headed out to sea.
What happened from the 29-3rd of August?
Six day battle off the Kent coast. Sevel Spanish ships were sunk. The spanish could not reach the Netherlands, land in England or regroup. They headed into the North Sea. Both sides ran low in ammunition and near the Scottish coast the English turned back
What happened from August to October?
Spanish fleet passed round Scotland and Ireland but was badly damaged by storm and high seas. At least 19 ships were wrecked of the Irish Coast. Others were driven out into the Atlantic and foundered
What year was the Spanish Armada in?
What year did Drake reaid Cadiz?
In 1587, what did Drake do in Cadiz?
He raided Cadiz and destoryed 24 big Spanish ships, as well as supply ships
What happened early in 1588?
Santa Cruz died. His replacement, chosen for rank rather than expierience was the Duke of Medina Sidonia who had little knowledge of the sea.
What is the definitions of RIVALRY and CONFLICT?
Rivalry is an unfriendly competition.
Conflict is an agressive opposition between characters.
What are main causes of rivalry between England and Spain? Explain in detail
RELIGION- Spain was Catholic and England was Protestant
PERSONAL- Philip II has asked Elizabeth to marry him and she refused
POWER/INFLUENCE- Spain was the world's superpower in the 1500's. England was ambitious to become more powerful.
TRADE/WEALTH- Philips flota carried his treasure from the worldwide Empire. English ships had started to attack the Flota and Philips reputation.
What is the Council of Trent?
This was a council of Church leaders who restated Catholic beliefs and removes some of the old bad practices.
What were the New Religious Orders?
New religious oders, such as the Jesuits were founded to improve the standards of religious education and carry out missionary work
What was The Inquisition?
In Catholic countries like Spain, people suspected of holding Protestant beliefs were questioned by a type of religious court of law, called the Inquisition. Many people were tortured and some burned if they refused to change their beliefs. In Protestant countries some Catholics were also persecuted.
In result of the Counter-Reformation, where did the Catholic Church remain strong?
France, Spain and Italy.
Who did the Jesuits try to convert to Catholicism?
They sent missionaries to America and Asia.
Who were the Jesuits?
They Jesuits were the society of Jesus and they improved education standards of Religion and carried out missionary work to try convert people to Catholicism.
What you describe the Counter-Reformation as?
The Counter-Reformation was a way of the Catholic Church to fight back and keep their followers.
Lutheran times, what happened in 1510?
In 1510 Luther took a visit to Rome, and was shocked by the luxury of the Pope Leo X's court.
What happened in 1517?
In 1517 Luther became worried about another religious problem. Their methods used to collect money to rebuild St Peter's Cathedral in Rome.
What happened in 1519?
In 1519, finally Pope Leo X arranged a debate to try to get Luther to discuss some of his ideas. This was held in Liebeg in June and July of 1519
What happened in 1520?
Pope Leo decided to issue a Papal Bull, which condemned Luther's teachings and gave him 60 days to withdraw his words.
Luther made the final break with the church in December 1520 by publicly burning a copy of the Papal Bull in Wittenburg.
What happened in 1521?
The Diet of Worms. Luther was allowed to explain his ideas infront of all the German princes and their new emporer Charles V. He did, but Charles decided Luther was a heretic and an outlaw.
What is an indulgence?
An indulgence was something a Catholic gained when doing religious work (giving money in this case.) This meant that they could help someone in Purgatory.
What is the Reformation?
At the start, most Europeans belonged to the Catholic church. By the end, many did not. This was because of the Reformation.
What were the 95 theses?
They were 95 complaints about the catholic church
What were some examples of the 95 theses?
5 The pope has no power to let people off the punishment they must pay for their sins. He can only do so for penalties he or the church has imposed.
21 Pardoners are mistaken when they say that by their indulgences a person is freed and saved from all punishment
27 They preach Man, not God, who say that the soul fled out of purgatory as soon as the money rattles the chest
What is a heretic?
A Roman Catholic who willfully ad persistently rejects any article of faith.
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