Section 11

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apvg1997
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Section 11
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2015-11-17 13:21:05
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Section 11
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  1. skeletal cartilage
    • contain no blood vessels or nerves
    • surrounded by the perichondrium (dense irregular connective tissue)
  2. types of skeletal cartilage
    hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
  3. functions of bones
    support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation
  4. compact bone
    dense outer layer
  5. spongy bone
    • cancellous
    • honeycomb of trabeculae with red bone marrow
  6. long bones
    • longer than wide
    • humerus
  7. flat bones
    • thin flattened, and a bit curved
    • sternum
  8. ways to classify bones
    flat, long, short, and irregular
  9. epi
    outside of
  10. epiphysis
    one end of a long bone (head)
  11. articular cartilage
    over joint surfaces acts as friction reducer and shock absorber
  12. medullary cavity
    marrow cavity
  13. epiphyseal plate
    how bones "growth"
  14. bones are highly what?
    vascularized
  15. bone membranes
    periosteum and endosteum
  16. periosteum
    double layered protective membrane
  17. inner osteogeneic layer
    • part of periosteum membrane
    • where osteoblast and osteoclast are
    • create bone
    • out layer
  18. endosteum
    • delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone
    • the remodel bones
    • innerlayer
  19. location of hematopoietic tissue?
    • in infants-medullary cavity anf all areas of spongy bone
    • in adults- flat bones, vertabrae, sternum, pelvis, and the head of femur and humerus
  20. what is hematopoietic tissue?
    red marraow
  21. osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  22. lacunae
    small cavities that contain osteocytes
  23. canaliculi
    interconnect lacunae to each other and the central canal
  24. osteon
    the structural single unit of compact bone
  25. lamella
    tubes composed mainly of collagen
  26. harversian or central canal
    central channel containing blood vessels and nerves
  27. valkmanns cannal
    channels lying at right angles to the central canal
  28. osteoblast
    boneforming cells
  29. osteoclasts
    large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix from fused monocytes
  30. osteoid
    distinctive extra cellular matrix that iniciates bone formation
  31. hydrixyapatites
    mineral slats
  32. osteogenesis and ossification
    the process of bone tissue formation (fully mineralized) hard
  33. formation of mature bone cells is organized around what?
    blood vessels
  34. intramembranosus ossification
    bone develops from a fibrous membrane (flat cranial bones)
  35. endochondrial ossification
    bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage (long bones)
  36. steps in intramembranosus ossification?
    • (to make flat bones)
    • 1. develop ossification center
    • 2. calcification; formation of bone spicules
    • 3. formation of woven bone (trabeculae)
    • 4. development of periosteum and compact bone collar
  37. endochondral ossification
    • begins in the second month
    • process of making long bones
    • uses hyaline cartilage as a model to form the new one
  38. what initiates endochondral ossification?
    the conversion of perichondrium to vascularized periosteum
  39. endochondiral bone ossification steps?
    • 1.develop and growth of cartilage bone
    • 2. formation of bone collar and deterioration of medullary cartilage
    • 3. development of the primary ossification center
    • 4. development of medullary cavity
    • 5. development of the secondary ossification center
    • 6. formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
  40. diaphisis
    middle of bone where bone marrow is
  41. resting zone
    hyaline cartilage on epiphyseal side of plate
  42. growth zone
    where chondrocytes will pull the head away from shaft
  43. transformation zone
    older cells enlarge, the matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die and the matrix begins to deteriorate
  44. osteogenic zone
    new bone formation occurs
  45. lysosomes are made out of what?
    membrane
  46. membrane is made of what?
    phospholipids
  47. remodeling units
    • osteoblast and osteoclasts deposit and resorb bone at the periosteal and endosteal surfces
    • with help from lysosomes
  48. what stimulates bone growth?
    hormones
  49. what controls the remodeling of bone?
    • hormones that controls calcium in blood
    • mechanical and gravitational forces acting on the skeleton
  50. what is calcium necessary for?
    • transmission of nerve impulses
    • muscle contraction
    • blood coagulation
    • secretion by glands and nerve cells
    • cell division
  51. hormonal mechanisms
    • raising Ca triggers the release of calcitonin (hormone)
    • calcitonin stimulates calcium salts deposit in bone
    • falling Ca signal the release of PTH
    • PTH signals osteoclasts to degrade bone matrix for release Ca into the blood
  52. osteons go in the direction of what?
    stress
  53. osteoposis
    • group of diseases in which bi=one reabsorption outspaces bone deposit (taking out of Ca is faster than it can be put back in)
    • happens most in postmenopausal women
  54. osteomalacia (Rickets)
    • bones are inadequately mineralized causing softened weakened bones
    • cause by insufficient Ca or Vitamin D

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