GENETICS EXAM 3

Card Set Information

Author:
kjel
ID:
311524
Filename:
GENETICS EXAM 3
Updated:
2015-11-16 16:27:30
Tags:
GENETICS EXAM
Folders:
GENETICS EXAM 3
Description:
GENETICS EXAM 3
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user kjel on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. bacteria and viruses are diploid or haploid?
    haploid
  2. auxotroph vs prototroph
    • phototrophs are organisms that can synthesize all the compounds needed for growth. (can be grown on minimal medium)
    • auxotrophs cannot synthesize one or more of the necessary compounds  for growth
  3. 3 ways bacteria transfer genetic information...
    • conjugation
    • transformation
    • transduction
  4. conjugation between F+x F- results in what types of exconjugants?
    process:
    • F+x F- results in two F+ cells
    • process: pilus, one strand of plasmid moves across, DNA complement synthesized on both single strands, cells separate
  5. how does F+ cell become Hfr cell?
    F factor is integrated into the bacterial chromosome
  6. Hfr x F- results in what types of exconjugants?
    process:
    • Hfr x F- results in an Hfr cell and an F- cell with extra genes
    • process: bacterial chromosome integrates F factor and becomes Hfr, Hfr able to conjugate with F- cell and transfer some genes, F factor does not transfer
  7. what is an F' cell?
    when the F factor that had been integrated into the Hfr chromosome excises it brings a few genes along with it
  8. F' x F- what types of exconjugants?
    process:
    • F' and a merozygote (also F')
    • process: F factor of Hfr cell excises from chromosome bringing a few genes along, now considered F', when crossed with F-, the F factor along with the excised genes are transferred and the recipient cell now may have two copies of those genes, a merozygote considered partially diploid
  9. F factor plasmids vs R plasmids
    • F factor plasmids confer fertility; genes for sex pilus
    • R plasmids have resistance transfer factor (RTF) that codes for plasmid transfer AND r-determinants that confer resistance to antibiotics
  10. Viral DNA that integrates into the bacterial chromosome is called a ______
    prophage
  11. episome
    viral DNA that can be integrated in to the host DNA or replicated in the bacterial cytoplasm
  12. to serve as genetic material a molecule must be able to satisfy these 4 criteria:
    • replicate
    • store information
    • express information
    • allow variation by mutation
  13. central dogma of molecular genetics
    • transcription: three types of RNA are synthesized from DNA
    • mRNA - messenger
    • rRNA - ribosomal
    • tRNA - transfer
    • translation: mRNA synthesizes proteins
    • DNA-->transcription[m/r/t RNA]-->ribosome-->translation-->protein
  14. Griffith experiment
    • 1927 - rats - avirulent strains could be transformed to virulence
    • some "transforming principle" exists
    • Rough was avirulent
    • Smooth was virulent
    • Heat-kill Smooth, avirulent
    • combine with Rough
    • virulent
  15. Avery experiment
    • "transforming principle" was DNA
    • treated cells with different enzymes to selectively remove protein, RNA, or DNA -- only when DNA was removed did transformation not occur
  16. Hershey and Chase experiments
    • 1952
    • - DNA, not protein, genetic material
    • used E. coli and bacteriophage
    • using radioisotopes 32P and 35S
    • 32P w/ phosphate backbone of DNA
    • 35S w/ sulfur of protein bodies of bacteriophage
  17. retroviruses - unusual replication
    • RNA serves as template for synthesis of complementary DNA by the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase
    • This DNA can be incorporated into the host-cell genome. 
    • When transcribed copies of original retroviral RNA chromosomes also produced
  18. DNA is a nucleic acid
    nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA. 
    Nucleotides consist of ...(3)
    • nitrogenous base
    • pentose sugar
    • phosphate group
  19. two kinds of nitrogenous bases and types of each na d
    • Purines: Adenine and Guanine; double ring structure
    • Pyrimidines: Thymine (or Uracil) and Cytosine; single ring structure
  20. 2' C difference between deoxyribose and ribose
    • Ribose = OH
    • Deoxyribose = H
  21. what type of bond links nucleotides?
    specifically where does this bond exist?
    phosphodiester bond between the phosphate group at the C-5' and the OH group at the C-3' position
  22. Watson and Crick year
    DNA diameter
    space between base pairs
    length of one complete turn
    minor groove and major groove
    right or left handed
    • 1953
    • 2 nm
    • .34 nm
    • ten base pairs = 3.4 nm
    • 1.2 nm and 2.2 nm
    • right handed
  23. number of hydrogen bonds between base pairs
    • A:T = 2
    • G:C = 3
  24. DNA replication is semiconservative experiment...
    who, when, how
    • Meselson and Stahl
    • 1958
    • Used 15N-labeled E. coli in a medium containing 14N
    • -- in prokaryotes
  25. telomeres
    • long stretches of short repeating sequences at the ends of linear chromosomes
    • preserve integrity and stability of chromosomes
    • active in germ cells -- NOT eukaryotic somatic cells
  26. chromosomes -- viral vs bacterial vs eukaryotic
    • viral -- DNA or RNA, single or double stranded, circular or linear
    • bacterial -- DNA, circular, double stranded, few proteins
    • eukaryotic -- DNA, linear, double stranded, many proteins
  27. levels of DNA packaging
    2nm DNA --> 11nm nucleosome --> 30nm solenoid --> looped domains --> 300nm chromatin fibers --> 700nm chromatid --> 1400nm chromosome
  28. Satellite DNA
    highly repetitive, short repeated sequences found in heterochromatic centromeric regions of chromosomes
  29. VNTR
    • Variable Number Tandem Repeats
    • minisatellites
  30. STR
    • Short Tandem Repeats
    • microsatellites
  31. SINE
    LINE
    Short Interspersed ElementsLong Interspersed Elementsdispersed throughout genomeThey are retrotransposons that are generated via an RNA intermediate

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview