HUMA quiz

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yhliuaa
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311549
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HUMA quiz
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2015-12-10 11:20:12
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HUMA quiz
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HUMA quiz
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  1. difference in manner of articulation btw /ph/, /p/,/b/
    • ph: unvoiced and aspirated
    • p: unvoiced and unaspirated
    • b: voiced and unaspirated
  2. phonetic transcription - pay
    [phei]
  3. phonetic transcription - space
    [speis]
  4. phonetic transcription - bay
    [bei]
  5. ...are contrastive in English, example, whereas ...are contrastive in Cantonese, example; hence plosives in Cantonese contrast in ...., not in....
    • /p/ and /b/ ; pay and bay
    • /ph/ and /p/; 披, 悲
    • aspiration, voicing
  6. the nine voiceless sounds in English
    / p t k tʃ f θ s ʃ h /
  7. pronunciation rules of "s" allomorphs
    • әz:after /s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/
    • z: after voiced sounds except the above rule
    • s: elsewhere
  8. pronunciation rules of "d" allomorphs
    • әd: after /t, d/
    • d: after a voiced sound except /d/ (above rule)
    • t: elsewhere
  9. Cantonese tonal shape: group, number and names
    • non-rising: 1364; high, high-mid, low-mid, low
    • rising: 25; high,low
  10. rising cantonese tone's corresponding PTH tones
    falling-rising
  11. non-rising cantonese tone's corresponding PTH tones
    • 1: level(1)
    • 3: falling (4)
    • 6: falling (4)
    • 4: rising (2)
  12. example rule governing the use of allomorph
    when there is a genitive morpheme before a word beginning wiith a voiced plosive, it is pronounced as the corresponding voiceless plosive
  13. free vs bound morpheme
    • free: carries a lexical meaning and can be used alone
    • bound: appears only as a part of another word
  14. Difference between men and women
    • Women readily talk about their inner lives whereas men don't
    • Women are more likely to give minimal responses .
    • They often validate their friends
    • Women often use the word 'exactly' or 'yeah' and nod their heads in agreement, probably with more facial expression
    • there is more eye contact among women talking to each other
    • men tended to be non-responsive to their friend's disclosure
    • Men are better at masking their emotional arousal with neutral facial expression; their level of arousal is in fact higher than women
  15. why can the brain process the pronunciation when male and female say it in different pitch?
    because the pronunciation has the same tone
  16. conceptual metaphors - what is it
    a type of comparison, when you are using a words metaphorically, you are using a meaning that has developed from the literal meaning and has some of the same features.
  17. conceptual metaphors - why is it important
    • conceptual metaphors are embedded in our language, there are many expressions in language which expresses similar idea
    • once we understand the key idea in a metaphor, for example, of talking about illness, it is easier to understand other words and phrases used for talking about illness
    • metaphorical ideas affect the way we talk about things and our ways of thinking
    • essential for computers to learn this to master language
  18. how does conceptual metaphors demonstrate the productivity of language
    • in the past time is abundant but as time goes by time became more valuable
    • in order to express this idea, we can use the phrase 'time is money' to express that time is valuable
    • hence conceptual metaphors allow us to express new ideas by comparing and connecting two things with the same feature
  19. why is metaphor difficult for computer
    • entailment are important for computers to process language
    • different people can highlight different aspect of a metaphor, ie. metaphors are never exact
    • in order for the computer to understand language, computers must first have knowledge of the metaphor
  20. a - open, closed and unstressed
    face, cat, attack
  21. e - open, closed and unstressed
    theme, best, selfless/escape
  22. i - open, closed and unstressed
    nice, sit, [di]vide
  23. o - open, closed and unstressed
    no, top, con[so]nant
  24. u - open, closed and unstressed
    use, sun/push, suggest
  25. note is an open syllable but tense is closed because
    two consonants, ns, before silent e
  26. why is cantonese difficult for the computer
    • because there are 4 non-rising tones and 2 rising tones in cantonese
    • it is more important to recognize the tones in relative sense than in absolute sense
  27. explain the contradiction between a common belief that women is the talkative sex and that men doing the talking in a group
    silence is the desired state for women, any talk in which woman engages can be too much
  28. explain how language shows the men's perspective
    • the 'male' terms are usually created first; the female term is secondary, eg host and hostess
    • widow was created first to separate and discriminate against them
    • more words related to women than men in foul language
  29. unmarked means...
    default
  30. changing tone 3 in PTH
    • before 3: high rising(馬尾)
    • before 124:low falling(馬路)
    • otherwise: falling rising
  31. what is crazy about cantonese
    • 4 non rising tones
    • 2 rising tone, making a total of 3 low tones, (456)
  32. miscommunication between men and women
    • minimal responses: different meaning; women mean 'I'm listening' while men means 'I agree.'; when a female speaker receiving occasional minimal responses, he is indicating that he doesn't always agree while she thinks he's not listening
    • eye contact: men doesn't always make eye contact when they listen while women often does, which leads to the women thinking that men aren't listening
  33. why speech recognition is needed
    • control weapons by voice commands
    • make monitoring voice communication easier
  34. why Prof. Weizenbaum doesn't let a computer act as psychiatrists?
    he oppose all projects that propose to substitute a computer for a human function that involves interpersonal respect, understanding and love
  35. linguistic questionnaire - biggest difference between boys and girls
    • playing computer games
    • doing sports
    • going to malls and shopping
  36. common word order among different languages; two features of unmarked languages; which is the marked arrangement;
    • SOV(Korean and Japanese) and SVO
    • subject saliency (S before o) and VO contiguity
    • OSV
  37. common arguments between men and women
    • Women demand from men the same level of understanding they receive from other women
    • women think men don't listen to them
  38. why is [bh] rare
    • contradiction in their articulation
    • in order to produce a voiced sound, the vocal cords should be closed together, air pressure build up below the vocal cord to bring about vibrations
    • in order to say an aspirated sound, the vocal cords should be wide apart so that air passes through easily
    • it takes much more energy to vibrate vocal cords that are wide apart
  39. The IPA is central to the field of .... IPA symbols are adapted to specific languages. For instance, ...
    • articulatory phonetics
    • [ r ] is, strictly speaking, a trill 顫音 in IPA (for the “r” in Spanish) but it has been used as an approximant in transcribing English
  40. Based on three features, the .... is used for describing vowels: .... For example,...
    • vowel quadrilateral
    • open vs. close, front vs. back, and rounded vs. unrounded;
    • [ y ] (as in / sy1 / “book” in Cantonese) is a close front rounded vowel, whereas [ i ] is close front unrounded
  41. what is romanization
    it is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman script
  42. the 3 types of alphabets in Europe
    Greek, Cyrillic, Latin (Georgian)
  43. 2 syllabary in Japan
    Katakana (romanji) and Hiragana
  44. describe the purpose (1) and the conclusion(2) of the face vs mobile experiment
    • a blind experiment on neonatal social perception
    • male babies tend to prefer the mobile, whereas female babies either have no preference or prefer the real face
    • male babies looked significantly longer at the mobile than females did; the females looked longer at the real face than at the mobile
  45. in the study of speech perception, it was found that ....sound; the result indicate that ....(3)
    • 1- and 4- month old infants are able to discriminate the acoustic cue of the /b/ and /p/
    • infants as young as 1 mont age are responsive to speech sounds
    • experience has little effect in determining the perception of speech in first 4-6 months of life
    • speech may be necessary to stimulate the detection of speech, but it has little effect on the catergories of speech that are perceived
  46. in Werker and Tee's experiment, what was tested, how was it tested and what was the conclusion
    • infants discrimination performance on the dental/retroflex contrast in Hindi was tested in a head turn paradigm.
    • Conclusion: infants can discriminate nonnative speech sounds without relevant experience, but there is a decline in this ability
  47. public speaking: stereotype that women talk a lot
    • men feel more comfortable doing public speaking (report talk) while women feel more comfortable doing private (rapport talk) speaking
    • in academic conference, women contributed only 27.4% when it comes to volunteering and being called on to ask questions
    • men took longer when asking questions

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