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  1. warmer oceans fuel
    more extreme storms
  2. 1998
    hottest yar eve known
  3. aside from immediate temperature rises what are other signs that globe is warming?
    • air has more carbon dioxide
    • concentration of greenhouse gases have increased
    • climate is changing much faster than normal
  4. why were the marmots dying
    using too much energy being awake (waking up b/c of warmer weather but seeing snow instead of salad bar) rather than conserving energy asleep
  5. polar bears are pagophilic
    they live almost exclusively on sea ice
  6. still hunting
    waiting by the hole until diner appears (used by polar bears)
  7. why is there little change of grizzly bear interacting with polar bear?
    grizzlies are hibernating and pregnant female polar bears are denning (male polar bears are active year round)
  8. when global warming happens, polar bears
    • have no seal holes to sit by (ice breaks up)
    • summer is longer (longer without food)
  9. during the Pleistocene
    when polar bears descended from grizzly bears, the epoch when climate changed that frozen north became permanent feature of earth's landscape
  10. humans
    have fragmented the natural geographic ranges of many species and at the same time thrown barriers (animals can't move)
  11. who invented the word ecosystem?
    • Tansley
    • interactions between organisms and the physical factors of their environments, one of the prime factors being climate
  12. more species live where?
    near the equator and at low elevations
  13. basal metabolic rate
    amount of energy you expend while resting at room temperature
  14. root's rule
    northernmost extent of many passerine bird species' energy to survive the winter is not more than 2.5 the basal metabolic rate
  15. climate does change at different scales of what ?
    space and time
  16. climate
    average weather for many years
  17. continental drift
    climate changes that occur over millions of years (driven by plate tectonics)
  18. how do scientists make temperature estimates?
    • foraminifera (paelothermometers) or foram are single cell covered by shell from which threadlike pieces of ectoplasm emerge
    • shell can be fossilized
  19. who helped with the nuclear chemistry part of foram shells?
    • ratio of oxygen 16 to oxygen 18 depends on temp of the water that forams were living in. 
    • figured out regular fluctuations in temp taken place 300,000 years ago.
  20. what do Mediterranean plants have in common?
    ability to thrive in climates that are hot and dry in summer and that receive their limited precipitation in winter
  21. what have gardening experts noticed?
    map based on climate data from 1974 through 1986 is increasingly wrong
  22. no analog aseemblages
    past associations have no analogs today, because seasonality (difference between summer and winter); if winters were a lil warmer and summers a lil cooler, then previously associated animals are separated by limitations of weather
  23. phenology
    • the interaction between the yearly life cycle of a species and the yearly cycle of climate
    • shift occured in spring when breeding, budding and migrating happens
  24. homeothermy
    • ability to regulate body temperature
    • more snow means greater energetic drain in moving and less success in foraging
  25. pikas
    die of heat stress if they are outside in moderate temps (78-85F). that's why they only live on mountain tops
  26. how are the harlequin frogs dying?
    • pathogenic fungus, survives best when days are cool and nights are warm
    • bright yellow and orange splotches
  27. burgess shale
    • came about during cambrian time, modern day remnant of 530 million year old seafloor 
    • even delicate soft parts of the bodies of hallucigenia are preserved
  28. evolution is created by
    between molecules, individual organisms, the environment, and dumb luck
  29. dimensions of evolution
    innovation, diversity and experimentation
  30. innovations
    • mutations at the molecular level coming at the right place and right time
    • rarest, happen when body plans are simple, innovations of that grand scale tend to be decoupled from past climate changes
  31. diversity
    speciation (slow process)
  32. warm snow filled winters are bad for reindeer
    • decreasing body mass and offspring, snow is greater energetic drain
    • increased harassment from bugs
  33. what is the dead zone
    • cape perpetua, in oregon
    • upwelling ceases, oxygen poor water upwell into shallow water
  34. that which bends up
    chikungunya, human pathogen (topical infection)
  35. upwelling
    • shifting wind patterns, cooler and more nutrient rich water from below replace it
    • problem when oxygen poor water started coming up, kill phytoplankton
  36. decomposition
    wind diminish, upwelling ceases, nutrients depleted, phytoplankton die and fall to bottom, bacteria decompose (sucks out oxygen)
  37. all the other dead zones are dead
    because of pollution
  38. large and small animals in oceans
    • species lower in food chain grow, big fish die
    • sea urchins, not held in check by predators wipe out kelp forests, wipe out entire forests
  39. people hit the middle links hard through overfishing
    these animals (filter feeders and grazers) die, can't support predators)
  40. slime
    when you squish phytoplankton
  41. coral reefs
    rainforests of the sea (most productive and diverse environments on earth)
  42. coral bleaching
    • zooxanthellae (inside polyp give it nutrients), polyps give zooxanthellae protection
    • when warm zooxanthellae die, coral polyps bleach white (zooxanthellae gives it color)
    • no polyp, no secretion of CaCO3, reef brittle and falls
  43. reef province
    geographic area that shares common reef species in a certain part of a certain ocean
  44. what attributes in species to global warming?
    geogarhpic range, abundance, phenotype, phenology and genotype
  45. elk tombstone
    • extinct along with 2/3 of all largest animal during Plesistocene when glaciers were melting
    • megafauna (so large), more than 44kg (100 lbs)
  46. what caused megafauna extinction?
    • first entry of humans (hunters)
    • blitzkrieg (killing of massive numbers of megafauna)
  47. younger dryas
    • cold snap toward the end of the last glacial
    • allerod (relatively warm time)
    • ballybetah bog (lake where irish elk lived)
  48. differences in phenotype of elk in ballybetagh
    • smaller skulls (small bodies-condition over all years)
    • antlers were abnormally small (reflect conditions only during the year before the animals death b/c they shed every year
  49. energy drain for elks
    • males: growing antlers
    • females: nursing babies
  50. global warming caused what for elks
    • triggered a shortening of plant growing season and threw out of phase with elk's yearly life cycle
    • ireland is an island (no way to disperse)
  51. joseph grinnell
    • built museum to define a baseline for assessing how human impacts change nature
    • along with Muir (approve national parks) and Alexander
  52. patton
    grinnell resurvey project (go back to yosemite)
  53. elevation and types of habitats
    hotter, drier habitats down low and moister, cooler habitats up high
  54. lapse rate
    • as you go higher in elevation, the air cools off at more of less regular rate
    • small sized species in lowlands have expanded to fill available climate space (pinon mice)
  55. species limited by temp are losing the tops of their elevational range as well as the bottom
    hotter at lower elevations and hotter at higher elevations
  56. yellowstone
    world's first legislated effort at nature conservation
  57. woodrats (packrats) in Lamar Cave
    collect piles of junk including animal bones (midden)
  58. warm dry time associated with
    high fire frequency
  59. how to know when fires came about
    fire burns off vegetation in mountainous topography, sediment falls off and in streams, Meyer wanted to figure out the layers in stream deposits and use that to find fire frequencies.
  60. the only mammal that yellowstone lacks today compared to before
    prairie vole
  61. hotter temp and less precipation in yellowstone
    cause more severe and frequent droughts. ponds are drinking
  62. how have we been changing the environment in the last 150 years compared to now
    • we messed with large animals at the top
    • now we try to hold things at top steady, while global warming kicks the foundation from below
  63. old mose
    the biggest grizzly in the rockies
  64. porcupine cave
    tell us about the past in colorado rocky mountains
  65. amount of warming from glacial to interglacial is about how much? what is different today?
    amount of warming 5C is what we would expect today, but rate is faster now
  66. what time period are we living in now?
    • interglacial 
    • Plesistocene began when earth cooled to pont which glaciers grew over most of northern hemisphere and enlarged in south, 39 cycles, then glaciers retreated, marking this interglacial time
  67. manetostratigraphy
    most rocks contain magnetic mineral grains that point toward north, but earth's magnetic field changes and flips
  68. clementsian community concept
    vegetation reaches climax stage and a similar set of species would always end up together in the climax communities
  69. gleasonian community concept
    every species of plant is a law unton itself, the distribution of which depends on individual peculiarities of migration and enviornmental requirements
  70. which concept the clement or gleasonian did porcupine cave show?
  71. what did the species that went extinct or were locally exterminated at the glacial-interglacial transition had in common?
    they existed in low population sizes throughout the times they were present in Procupine Cave
  72. in the absence of humans, climatic risk seems to act strongest on what type of animal?
    smallest herbivore
  73. what did the size-trophic category analysis at Porcupine Cave tell us
    • that ecological niches and the relationships among them in that ecosystem remained constant not the species themselves
    • size tropic category, were the same in Pleistocene glacial times and the interglacial before humans
  74. what happens when humans are killing bigger animals?
    elephants are expressing post traumatic stress syndrom (raping and killing rhinos, erratic behaviors)
  75. el nino
    • name given to month when tripical central pacific is warm (warm, nutrient poor tropical waters on cost of south america)
    • la nina 9cold)
  76. what happens in south Africa during El Nino
    • reduced rainful in normally wet months
    • combination of dryness and increase in local temp, leads to shorter plant growing season, and offset the wet season precipitation
  77. what does computer models suggest about Kruger national Park?
    conversation areas may lose up to 66% of its species.
  78. danger of global warming in kruger
    • extinction of animals
    • new species who can stand hot, dry seasons
  79. how many % does human footprint influence land surface?
  80. tambopota
    • Home to one-ninth of all bird species in the worl
    • one of the world's last remaining tropical rainforests
    • drying out turns rainforest into savannah (dries soil)
  81. what is the B1 world
    • populaiton does not increase very much, resource efficient technology (CO2 doubles)
    • B2 is worse scenario (more than double CO2)
    • A1: population peaks then decline, gorwth and technology increase
  82. A2
    the selfish world, countries continues to grow in isolation, population does not level off
  83. very high confidence from IPCC
    90% chance of whatever is going to happen
  84. shrinking of rainforests exacerbates global warming how?
    rainforests are carbon sinks. carbon is released into atmosphere as rainforests die, increases greenhouse gases, increasing warming (positive feedback loop)
  85. another consequence of rainforest die back
    make their own moisture, local contribution to clouds and rain budget also decrease, more local heating and less overall precipitation which will kill more forest
  86. williams jakcson and kuzbach suggests what about local climate and global
    what happens on a local scale is interwined with what happens globally
  87. what did williams found about how rainforests will change
    • into novel climates, none of the world's vegetational communities are currently adapted to,unable to support current species
    • most havoc in places of the world's greatest biodiversity.
  88. what is one of biodiversity main determinants?
  89. Thermus aquaticus
    • survive high heat (found in yellowstone)
    • found by Brock (mushroom pond) 
    • upper temp where life could exist was 73C
  90. ecosystem services
    world's ecological interactions that support and fulfill human life by providing food, clean water, health products
  91. loss of keystone species
    can cause ecological collaspse at local scales, add up local losses and you get collapse of global ecosystem
  92. whitebark pine and beetle
    • bettle turns healthy forests into yellowish orange
    • life cycle of bettle require warmer weather, but warming increases beetle distance, infect whitebark pine (essential food for grizzly and anchors of forest ecosystem)
  93. resilience
    ability of ecosystem to return to its normal state after it is perturbed
  94. ecosystem resistance
    • resist moving into alternative stable state
    • every extinction leads to an overall weakening of both resistance and resilience, but nthing observable until one too many species hit. 
    • there is redundance in system
  95. why is there slow mutation rate
    • to limit the speed at which selective forces like climate change stimulate the building of new species
    • rate at which climate changes is well matched to the mutation rate, so as selection pressure of a changing climate pushes, evolution can keep up and new species evolve
    • slow climate change associated with bursts of speciation
  96. what happens when rate of climate change is greater than mutation
    evolutionary opportunities reduced to wathever geentic changes are possible: recombination
  97. natural selection is opposite of recombination
    not enhancing variation but reduces it (trimming least fit individuals)
  98. experimentation
    • when recombination hits there are experiments in little gene pools
    • smaller the population the faster the spread, genes for new trait less swamped by other genes
  99. the selection pressure induced by global warming has to do with what/
    phenology (reproduction)
  100. when global warming causes a population to decrease in size the vole genetic diversity
    • increases according to stanford study
    • don't do much in long run, although new voles come in they don't survive in large enough numbers to build up population sizes and send dispersers out
  101. gophers stanford found
    • when population decline in size (they don't move around), diversity also decreases
    • extinction with selection pressure
  102. phenotype plasticity
    • change to some limit, but without recombination to produce some new variation, it may soon reach its limit. without mutation, it is just a temporary fix
    • accounts for most of the advance in breeding season
  103. what species are not limtied by mutation rate?
    mosquitos, low generation time and high number of offsprings
  104. dead clades walking
    clades (branches of evoluntionary tree); these clades are weak and will die
  105. infectious salmon aenmia
    • caged in fish and infect wild animals in salmon farms
    • hemorrhaging organs, swollen eyes and spleen
  106. what we are doing wrong
    • habitat destruction and fragmentation
    • introduce same species to diff places (biodiversity decrease)
    • growing population, use up energy
  107. invasive species
    grab energy source of existing species
  108. NPP
    • net primary produtivity, total solar energy to organic matter (minus energy for plants to make the conversion)
    • humans grab 25%
  109. easter island
    ecosystem collapsed too many people, most remote place on earth
  110. gang of four
    • global warming
    • habitat fragmentation
    • invasive species
    • human growth
  111. rewilding
    refill species with nearest ecological anlogs
  112. reconcilation ecology
    planting native trees in parks
  113. three conservation priorities
    sustain global ecosystem, saving particular species and saving wilderness
Card Set:
2015-12-05 22:18:27

exam 3
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