aside from immediate temperature rises what are other signs that globe is warming?
air has more carbon dioxide
concentration of greenhouse gases have increased
climate is changing much faster than normal
why were the marmots dying
using too much energy being awake (waking up b/c of warmer weather but seeing snow instead of salad bar) rather than conserving energy asleep
polar bears are pagophilic
they live almost exclusively on sea ice
waiting by the hole until diner appears (used by polar bears)
why is there little change of grizzly bear interacting with polar bear?
grizzlies are hibernating and pregnant female polar bears are denning (male polar bears are active year round)
when global warming happens, polar bears
have no seal holes to sit by (ice breaks up)
summer is longer (longer without food)
during the Pleistocene
when polar bears descended from grizzly bears, the epoch when climate changed that frozen north became permanent feature of earth's landscape
have fragmented the natural geographic ranges of many species and at the same time thrown barriers (animals can't move)
who invented the word ecosystem?
interactions between organisms and the physical factors of their environments, one of the prime factors being climate
more species live where?
near the equator and at low elevations
basal metabolic rate
amount of energy you expend while resting at room temperature
northernmost extent of many passerine bird species' energy to survive the winter is not more than 2.5 the basal metabolic rate
climate does change at different scales of what ?
space and time
average weather for many years
climate changes that occur over millions of years (driven by plate tectonics)
how do scientists make temperature estimates?
foraminifera (paelothermometers) or foram are single cell covered by shell from which threadlike pieces of ectoplasm emerge
shell can be fossilized
who helped with the nuclear chemistry part of foram shells?
ratio of oxygen 16 to oxygen 18 depends on temp of the water that forams were living in.
figured out regular fluctuations in temp taken place 300,000 years ago.
what do Mediterranean plants have in common?
ability to thrive in climates that are hot and dry in summer and that receive their limited precipitation in winter
what have gardening experts noticed?
map based on climate data from 1974 through 1986 is increasingly wrong
no analog aseemblages
past associations have no analogs today, because seasonality (difference between summer and winter); if winters were a lil warmer and summers a lil cooler, then previously associated animals are separated by limitations of weather
the interaction between the yearly life cycle of a species and the yearly cycle of climate
shift occured in spring when breeding, budding and migrating happens
ability to regulate body temperature
more snow means greater energetic drain in moving and less success in foraging
die of heat stress if they are outside in moderate temps (78-85F). that's why they only live on mountain tops
how are the harlequin frogs dying?
pathogenic fungus, survives best when days are cool and nights are warm
bright yellow and orange splotches
came about during cambrian time, modern day remnant of 530 million year old seafloor
even delicate soft parts of the bodies of hallucigenia are preserved
evolution is created by
between molecules, individual organisms, the environment, and dumb luck
dimensions of evolution
innovation, diversity and experimentation
mutations at the molecular level coming at the right place and right time
rarest, happen when body plans are simple, innovations of that grand scale tend to be decoupled from past climate changes
speciation (slow process)
warm snow filled winters are bad for reindeer
decreasing body mass and offspring, snow is greater energetic drain
increased harassment from bugs
what is the dead zone
cape perpetua, in oregon
upwelling ceases, oxygen poor water upwell into shallow water
that which bends up
chikungunya, human pathogen (topical infection)
shifting wind patterns, cooler and more nutrient rich water from below replace it
problem when oxygen poor water started coming up, kill phytoplankton
wind diminish, upwelling ceases, nutrients depleted, phytoplankton die and fall to bottom, bacteria decompose (sucks out oxygen)
all the other dead zones are dead
because of pollution
large and small animals in oceans
species lower in food chain grow, big fish die
sea urchins, not held in check by predators wipe out kelp forests, wipe out entire forests
people hit the middle links hard through overfishing
these animals (filter feeders and grazers) die, can't support predators)
when you squish phytoplankton
rainforests of the sea (most productive and diverse environments on earth)
zooxanthellae (inside polyp give it nutrients), polyps give zooxanthellae protection
when warm zooxanthellae die, coral polyps bleach white (zooxanthellae gives it color)
no polyp, no secretion of CaCO3, reef brittle and falls
geographic area that shares common reef species in a certain part of a certain ocean
what attributes in species to global warming?
geogarhpic range, abundance, phenotype, phenology and genotype
extinct along with 2/3 of all largest animal during Plesistocene when glaciers were melting
megafauna (so large), more than 44kg (100 lbs)
what caused megafauna extinction?
first entry of humans (hunters)
blitzkrieg (killing of massive numbers of megafauna)
cold snap toward the end of the last glacial
allerod (relatively warm time)
ballybetah bog (lake where irish elk lived)
differences in phenotype of elk in ballybetagh
smaller skulls (small bodies-condition over all years)
antlers were abnormally small (reflect conditions only during the year before the animals death b/c they shed every year
energy drain for elks
males: growing antlers
females: nursing babies
global warming caused what for elks
triggered a shortening of plant growing season and threw out of phase with elk's yearly life cycle
ireland is an island (no way to disperse)
built museum to define a baseline for assessing how human impacts change nature
along with Muir (approve national parks) and Alexander
grinnell resurvey project (go back to yosemite)
elevation and types of habitats
hotter, drier habitats down low and moister, cooler habitats up high
as you go higher in elevation, the air cools off at more of less regular rate
small sized species in lowlands have expanded to fill available climate space (pinon mice)
species limited by temp are losing the tops of their elevational range as well as the bottom
hotter at lower elevations and hotter at higher elevations
world's first legislated effort at nature conservation
woodrats (packrats) in Lamar Cave
collect piles of junk including animal bones (midden)
warm dry time associated with
high fire frequency
how to know when fires came about
fire burns off vegetation in mountainous topography, sediment falls off and in streams, Meyer wanted to figure out the layers in stream deposits and use that to find fire frequencies.
the only mammal that yellowstone lacks today compared to before
hotter temp and less precipation in yellowstone
cause more severe and frequent droughts. ponds are drinking
how have we been changing the environment in the last 150 years compared to now
we messed with large animals at the top
now we try to hold things at top steady, while global warming kicks the foundation from below
the biggest grizzly in the rockies
tell us about the past in colorado rocky mountains
amount of warming from glacial to interglacial is about how much? what is different today?
amount of warming 5C is what we would expect today, but rate is faster now
what time period are we living in now?
Plesistocene began when earth cooled to pont which glaciers grew over most of northern hemisphere and enlarged in south, 39 cycles, then glaciers retreated, marking this interglacial time
most rocks contain magnetic mineral grains that point toward north, but earth's magnetic field changes and flips
clementsian community concept
vegetation reaches climax stage and a similar set of species would always end up together in the climax communities
gleasonian community concept
every species of plant is a law unton itself, the distribution of which depends on individual peculiarities of migration and enviornmental requirements
which concept the clement or gleasonian did porcupine cave show?
what did the species that went extinct or were locally exterminated at the glacial-interglacial transition had in common?
they existed in low population sizes throughout the times they were present in Procupine Cave
in the absence of humans, climatic risk seems to act strongest on what type of animal?
what did the size-trophic category analysis at Porcupine Cave tell us
that ecological niches and the relationships among them in that ecosystem remained constant not the species themselves
size tropic category, were the same in Pleistocene glacial times and the interglacial before humans
what happens when humans are killing bigger animals?
elephants are expressing post traumatic stress syndrom (raping and killing rhinos, erratic behaviors)
name given to month when tripical central pacific is warm (warm, nutrient poor tropical waters on cost of south america)
la nina 9cold)
what happens in south Africa during El Nino
reduced rainful in normally wet months
combination of dryness and increase in local temp, leads to shorter plant growing season, and offset the wet season precipitation
what does computer models suggest about Kruger national Park?
conversation areas may lose up to 66% of its species.
danger of global warming in kruger
extinction of animals
new species who can stand hot, dry seasons
how many % does human footprint influence land surface?
Home to one-ninth of all bird species in the worl
one of the world's last remaining tropical rainforests
drying out turns rainforest into savannah (dries soil)
what is the B1 world
populaiton does not increase very much, resource efficient technology (CO2 doubles)
B2 is worse scenario (more than double CO2)
A1: population peaks then decline, gorwth and technology increase
the selfish world, countries continues to grow in isolation, population does not level off
very high confidence from IPCC
90% chance of whatever is going to happen
shrinking of rainforests exacerbates global warming how?
rainforests are carbon sinks. carbon is released into atmosphere as rainforests die, increases greenhouse gases, increasing warming (positive feedback loop)
another consequence of rainforest die back
make their own moisture, local contribution to clouds and rain budget also decrease, more local heating and less overall precipitation which will kill more forest
williams jakcson and kuzbach suggests what about local climate and global
what happens on a local scale is interwined with what happens globally
what did williams found about how rainforests will change
into novel climates, none of the world's vegetational communities are currently adapted to,unable to support current species
most havoc in places of the world's greatest biodiversity.
what is one of biodiversity main determinants?
survive high heat (found in yellowstone)
found by Brock (mushroom pond)
upper temp where life could exist was 73C
world's ecological interactions that support and fulfill human life by providing food, clean water, health products
loss of keystone species
can cause ecological collaspse at local scales, add up local losses and you get collapse of global ecosystem
whitebark pine and beetle
bettle turns healthy forests into yellowish orange
life cycle of bettle require warmer weather, but warming increases beetle distance, infect whitebark pine (essential food for grizzly and anchors of forest ecosystem)
ability of ecosystem to return to its normal state after it is perturbed
resist moving into alternative stable state
every extinction leads to an overall weakening of both resistance and resilience, but nthing observable until one too many species hit.
there is redundance in system
why is there slow mutation rate
to limit the speed at which selective forces like climate change stimulate the building of new species
rate at which climate changes is well matched to the mutation rate, so as selection pressure of a changing climate pushes, evolution can keep up and new species evolve
slow climate change associated with bursts of speciation
what happens when rate of climate change is greater than mutation
evolutionary opportunities reduced to wathever geentic changes are possible: recombination
natural selection is opposite of recombination
not enhancing variation but reduces it (trimming least fit individuals)
when recombination hits there are experiments in little gene pools
smaller the population the faster the spread, genes for new trait less swamped by other genes
the selection pressure induced by global warming has to do with what/
when global warming causes a population to decrease in size the vole genetic diversity
increases according to stanford study
don't do much in long run, although new voles come in they don't survive in large enough numbers to build up population sizes and send dispersers out
gophers stanford found
when population decline in size (they don't move around), diversity also decreases
extinction with selection pressure
change to some limit, but without recombination to produce some new variation, it may soon reach its limit. without mutation, it is just a temporary fix
accounts for most of the advance in breeding season
what species are not limtied by mutation rate?
mosquitos, low generation time and high number of offsprings
dead clades walking
clades (branches of evoluntionary tree); these clades are weak and will die
infectious salmon aenmia
caged in fish and infect wild animals in salmon farms
hemorrhaging organs, swollen eyes and spleen
what we are doing wrong
habitat destruction and fragmentation
introduce same species to diff places (biodiversity decrease)
growing population, use up energy
grab energy source of existing species
net primary produtivity, total solar energy to organic matter (minus energy for plants to make the conversion)
humans grab 25%
ecosystem collapsed too many people, most remote place on earth
gang of four
refill species with nearest ecological anlogs
planting native trees in parks
three conservation priorities
sustain global ecosystem, saving particular species and saving wilderness