Chemical control (soil fumigants and nonfumigant nematicides)
Crop rotation will not eliminate cyst nematode-it can survive for years without host
Fallow or planting a non-host broadleaf like pea, lentil, or chickpea may slow buildup
Control grassy weeds and break green bridge carryover
Best long-term solution will be resistance Cre genes.
List the different ways nematodes reproduce:
Amphimictic: fusion of a male and female gamete
parthenogenic: female asexual reproduction
Baermann funnel Nematode collection method:
Baermann funnel- attach rubber tubing to bottom of the funnel with a clamp. place two pieces of tissues paper in the funnel then add the soil. Add water to the funnel and let set for 1-2 days and observe.
Whitehead tray Nematode collection method:
1) collect soil from around plant roots
2) wrap a small handful of soil in two layers of facial tissue
3) place the wrapped soil in a small dish on top of a mesh or screen. Add water so that the mesh is slightly covered with water and the soil contacts the water.
4) let sit 1-3 days to allow the nematodes to crawl out of the soil. Make sure the sample stays in contact with the water - do not let the dish become dry. Covering the dish with plastic wrap or foil will help prevent drying.
5) remove the bundled soil from the dish and observe the water in the dish using a binocular dissecting microscope (you will even be able to see many nematodes with a magnifying glass
Sieving and sucrose Nematode collection method:
. Mix soil sample and pass through coarse sieve to remove rocks, roots, etc.
4. Take a 100 cc subsample of soil: pack lightly into beaker for uniformity.
5. Remove sand and organic material:
a) Mix soil subsample in 500 ml water by pouring between beakers ten times.
b) Rinse residues in second beaker into beaker with sample.
c) Swirl beaker with sample; allow to stand for 15 seconds (sand settles).
d) Pour supernatant through 20/500-mesh stacked sieves.
e) Gently tap side of 500-mesh sieve to facilitate drainage.Note: Larger particles will remain in beaker; organic debris is caught on 20-mesh sieve; nematodes and silt are retained on 500-mesh sieve.
f) Using the coarse-spray water bottle, gently wash nematodes, etc. into one sector of the 500-mesh sieve.
g) Using the fine spray water bottle, wash sample into a centrifuge tube.
6. Centrifuge: add water to centrifuge tubes to equalize volumes; place tubes in centrifuge in balanced pairs.a) Spin at 1700 rpm (810 g) for 5 minutes without using the brake.b) Allow to settle for 5 minutes.c) Aspirate supernatant to approximately 1 cm above pellet.d) Fill tubes with sucrose solution at room temperature.e) Stir with a spatula to break up pellet (must be completely dispersed).f) Spin sample: bring centrifuge up to 1000 rpm ( 280 g) in 30 sec, then apply brake.Note: Nematodes and clay are suspended in sucrose supernatant; silt and larger particles are in the pellet.
7. Pour supernatant through 635-mesh sieve. Rinse gently with water and transfer to labeled vials using the fine spray water bottle.