17 Psy 101

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ECCammi
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17 Psy 101
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2015-11-16 04:58:18
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Psychology
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Notes from pages 583-613 and class
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  1. Mental disorders
    A persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment
  2. Medical model
    Abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that like physical illnesses have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures
  3. What's the first step in helping someone with a psychological disorder?
    Identifying signs
  4. Disorder vs. disease vs. diagnosis
    • Disorder: refers to a common set of signs and symptoms
    • Disease: is a known pathological process affecting the body
    • Diagnosis: Determination as to whether a disorder or disease is present
  5. Comorbidity
    The co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual
  6. Biopsycholosocial perspective
    Explains mental disorders as the result of interactions among biological, psychological and social factors
  7. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
    A classification system the describes the features see to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems
  8. How has the DSM changed over time?
    Vague descriptions of disorders to very detailed lists of symptoms, started including conditions that might become formal disorders but are too un-researched as of now to figure it out
  9. Why does assessment require looking at a number of factors?
    • Most psychologists take a biopsychosocial perspective because many things seem to influence mental disorders including
    • Genetic and Epigenetic influences, biochemical imbalances and abnormalities in the brain structure and function
    • Maladaptive learning and coping, cognitive biases, dysfunctional attitudes and interpersonal problems
    • Poor socialization, stressful life experiences, cultural and social inequities
  10. Disathesis-stress model
    Suggests that a person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress.
  11. What are the limitations of using brain scans for diagnosing?
    • Because brain scans of people with and without disorders can give rise to an unusually strong impression that psychological problems are internal and permanent, inevitable and even untreatable.
    • Brain influences are important but they ain't everything yo
  12. Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC)
    A new initiative that aims to guide the classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them
  13. Why might someone avoid seeking help?
    There is a stigma around mental illnesses.
  14. The RDoC is a new classification system that focuses
    on biological, cognitive and behavioral aspects of mental disorders
  15. The DSM-5 is a classification system that defines a mental disorder as occurring when the person
    Experiences disturbances of thought, emotion or behavior that produce distress or impairment and that arise from internal sources
  16. According to the biopyschosocial model, mental disorders arise form an interaction of
    • Biological, psychological and social facts.
    • Often thought of as a combination of a diathesis (internal predisposition) and stress (environmental life event)
  17. When is anxiety harmful and when is it helpful?
    • Harmful: When it out of proportion to real life threats and challenges
    • Helpful: Situation related anxiety is normal and adaptive, can help remind you to keep up with things you need to do
  18. Anxiety disorder
    The class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature
  19. Phobic disorders
    Disorders characterized by marked, persistent and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities or situations
  20. Specific phobia
    A disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual's ability to function
  21. Social phobia
    A disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliate or embaressed
  22. Preparedness theory
    The idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears
  23. Why might we be predisposed to certain phobias?
    Preparedness theory
  24. Panic disorder
    A disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychosocial and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror
  25. Agoraphobia
    A specific phobia involving a fear of public places
  26. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
    A disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance
  27. What is it about public places that many people with agoraphobia fear?
    It is more about the person being afraid of having a panic attack in a new/foreign place around people who will judge them
  28. What factors contribute to GAD?
    • The idea of it being generalized comes from the fact that the worries do not come from a specific threat, and are often exaggerated and irrational
    • Uncontrollable worrying produces a sense of loss of control that can so erode self confidence that simple decisions seem fraught with dire consequences
  29. People with anxiety disorders
    Have irrational worries and fears that undermine their ability to function normally
  30. People who suffer from panic disorders experience
    A sudden and intense attack of anxiety that is terrifying and can lead them to become agoraphobia and housebound for fear of public humilation
  31. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) involves
    A chronic state of anxiety, whereas phobic disorders involve anxiety tied to a specific object or situation
  32. How effective is willful effort at curing OCD?
    Little or no benefit, can often backfire and make things worse
  33. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    A disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning.
  34. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    A disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind
  35. What structure in the brain might be an indicator for susceptibility to PTSD?
    • Heightened activity in the Amygdala.
    • Decreased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex
    • Smaller sized hippocampus
  36. PTSD makes a person experience
    Chronic physiological arousal, unwanted thoughts or images of the event and avoidance of things that remind the person of the event
  37. Mood disorders
    Mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature
  38. Major depressive disorder (or unipolar depression)
    A disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood and/or inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy and sleep and appetite disturbance
  39. Dysthymia
    The same cognitive and bodily problems as in depression are present, but they are less severe and last longer, persisting for at least 2 years
  40. What is the difference between depression and sadness?
    Depression is more than typical sadness. Depression is not a normal thing for everyone to feel from time to time like sadness is.
  41. Why do more women instead of men experience depression?
    • Socioeconomic standing
    • Sex differences in hormones
    • Higher rates of post partum depression
  42. Double depression
    A moderately depressed mood that persists for at least 2 years and is punctuated by periods of major depression
  43. Seasonal affective disorder
    Recurrent depressive episodes Ina seasonal patern
  44. Helplessness theory
    The idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (their own fault) stable, (unlikely to change) and global (widespread)
  45. Bipolar disorder
    A condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression)
  46. Why is bipolar disorder sometimes misdiagnosed as schizophrenia?
    Because during a manic episode things like hallucinations and delusions may be present.
  47. What findings offer exciting new evidence of why symptoms of different disorders seem to overlap?
    • Polymeric: Arising from the interaction of multiple genes that combine to create the symptoms observed in those with this disorder.
    • Pleiotropic effects: One gene influences one's susceptibility to multiple disorders.
  48. How does stress relate to manic depressive episodes?
    • Stressful life experiences often precede manic and depressive episodes. The more stressed one is the harder it is for them to recover from an episode.
    • High levels of stress have less impact on people with extroverted personalities than on those with more introverted personalities.
  49. Mood disorders are
    Mental disorders in which a disturbance in mood is the predominant feature
  50. Bipolar disorder is and unstable emotional condition involving
    Extreme mood swings of depression and mania. The manic phase is characterized by periods of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting at least one week
  51. Expressed emotion
    A measure of how much hostility, criticism, and emotional over-involvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder
  52. Schizophrenia
    A disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion and disturbances in thought, motivation and behavior
  53. Positive symptoms
    Thoughts and behaviors present in schizophrenia but not seen in those without the disorder such as delusions and hallucinations
  54. Hallucination
    A false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation
  55. Delusion
    A patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality
  56. Disorganized speech
    A severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently among unrelated topics
  57. Grossly disorganized behavior
    Behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances
  58. What is the role of genetics in schizophrenia?
    The more related you are to someone with schizophrenia the more likely you could have it.
  59. Catatonic behavior
    A marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidly and overactivity
  60. Negative symptoms
    Deficits or disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors (emotional and social withdrawal; apathy; poverty of speech; and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation and emotion)
  61. Cognitive symptoms
    Deficits in cognitive abilities, specifically executive functioning, attention, and working memory
  62. Dopamine hypothesis
    The idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity
  63. How are the brains of people with schizophrenia different from those without this disorder?
    • Abnormally enlarged ventricles suggesting loss of brain tissue mass that could arise from an anomaly in prenatal development
    • Progressive tissue loss beginning in the parental lobe and eventually encompassing much of the brain.
  64. Schizophrenia affects
    Only 1% of the population, but it accounts for a disproportionate share of psychiatric hospitalizations
  65. Risks for developing schizophrenia include
    • Genetic factors
    • Biochemical factors (perhaps a complex interaction among many neurotransmitters)
    • Brain abnormalities
    • A stressful home environment

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