GEO Plate Tectonics

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GEO Plate Tectonics
2015-11-16 04:35:24
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  1. Punctuated Equilibrium Concept
    Slowly evolving, uniform processes shape the Earth with localized catastrophic events occur as small interruptions
  2. Relative Time
    Geologic time scale based on the relative position of rock strata above and below each other
  3. Rock strata is always arranged with younger rocks over older rocks for the top of to the bottom of a rock sequence
    this is always true unless strata has been intruded, deformed or faulted
  4. Continental Crust
    Average about 30 km in thickness
  5. Oceanic Crust
    averages about 5 km in thickness
  6. Minerals
    • Elements or combinations of elements that form inorganic compounds
    • -A silicate such as quarts forms beach sand and glass
    • -carbonates such as calcite
  7. Rocks
    Assemblage of minerals or can be composed of one mineral
  8. Rock types
    • Igneous
    • sedimentary
    • metamorphic
  9. Mohs hardness Scale
    Original scale of mineral hardness quantifies scratch resistance of minerals
  10. Intrusive Igneous rocks
    form underground and cool slowly
  11. Extrusive igneous rocks
    reach the surface and cool quickly
  12. Stratigraphy
    study of layered rocks
  13. Lithification
    process where sediments are transformed into rocks by compaction, hardening and cementation
  14. Terrigenous Sedimentary Rock
    Derived from weathering pre-existing rocks and transported to depositional basins
  15. Carbonates
    form through both chemical and biochemical processes and include limestone, chalk, and dolomite
  16. Siliceous rocks
    commonly form from silica-secreting organisms such as diatoms, or radiolarians
  17. Evaporites
    created by the evaporation of seawater
  18. Peat
    Porous mass of brownish plant fragments resembling peat moss
  19. Lignite
    Organic sedimentary rock that is crumbly and black
  20. Bituminous Coal
    organic sedimentary Rock that is dull to shiny and black
  21. Anthracite coal
    Organic Sedimentary Rock that is extremely shiny and black
  22. Metamorphic Rock
    Any igneous or sedimentary rock can be transformed into a metamorphic rock by tectonic forces
  23. Continental Drift Hypothesis
    identical fossils in similar geological strata are now widely separated by oceans and continents fit together like a jigsaw
  24. sea floor spreading and mid ocean ridges are the result of upwelling magma and lateral spreading
  25. Continental Crust
    • The product of plate tectonics¬†
    • Sea floor spreading, formation of oceanic crust, subduction, re-melting and rise of magma
  26. Silica-rich magma rise and can cool underground to form intrusive igneous features such as plutons and batholiths
  27. Crayon
    nucleus of crystalline rock found a the core of all existing continents
  28. Continental shields
    exposed cartoons
  29. Platforms
    Portions of carton covered by layers of sedimentary rock that have eroded from the continental core
  30. terranes
    smaller chunks of continental crust that become attached to larger continental plates
  31. Displaced Terranes
    have been carried from their origin to new locations by tectonic movement
  32. Passive plate boundaries
    Stable and not geologically active
  33. Divergent Plate boundaries
    Involve crustal units moving away from each other in areas where magma is rising toward the surface
  34. Convergent plate boundaries
    • unstable areas where crustal units are actively colliding and one plate is driven downward into the mantle.¬†
    • this can involve two continental plates, two oceanic plates, or a continental oceanic plate combination
  35. Transform plate boundaries
    Places where crustal units slide past each other in a horizontal manner without converging or diverging