18 Psy 101

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ECCammi
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311560
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18 Psy 101
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2015-11-17 23:13:49
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Psychoogy
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Notes from pages 627-661
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  1. What are some of the personal, social and financial costs of mental illness?
    • Stigma, makes it harder to have/keep relationships
    • Costs a lot of money to get treatment
    • Self esteem issues
    • Impairment to carry out daily activities
    • Disability leave
  2. What are the obstacles to treatment for the mentally ill?
    • 1. People may not realize they have a mental disorder that could be effectively treated
    • 2. There may be barriers to treatment, like beliefs and circumstances that keep people from getting help
    • 3. Structural barriers prevent people from physically getting to treatmetn
  3. Psychotherapy
    An interaction between a socially sanctioned clinician and someone suffering from a psychological problem with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem
  4. Eclectic psychotherapy
    A form of psychotherapy that involves drawing on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem
  5. Psychodynamic psychotherapies
    Therapies that explore childhood events and encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems
  6. Mental illness is often
    Misunderstood and because of this it often goes untreated
  7. Untreated mental illness can be extremely
    Costly, affecting an individual's ability to function and also causing social and financial burdens.
  8. Many people who suffer from mental illness do not get the help they need
    They may be unaware that they have a problem, they may be uninterested in getting help for their problem or they may face structural barriers to getting treatment
  9. Treatments include
    Psychotherapy, which focuses on the mind, and medical and biological methods, which focus on the brain and body
  10. What might a client's resistance signal to a psychoanalyst?
    That the idea might not be correct but it is on the right track
  11. In what common ways do other Psychodynamic theories differ from Freudian analysis?
    • Procedures used, sitting face to face instead of one person laying down, less intensive
    • Content, rather than free association, therapists using IPT talk to clients about their interpersonal behaviors and feelings
  12. Resistance
    A reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material
  13. Transference
    An event that occurs in psychoanalysis when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies
  14. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT)
    A form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relatinships
  15. Person-centered therapy (or client-centered therapy)
    Assumes that all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist
  16. Gestalt therapy
    Has the goal of helping the client become aware of his or her thoughts, behaviors, experiences and feelings and to "own" or take responsibility for them
  17. Behavior therapy
    A type of therapy that assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptoms relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors
  18. What primary problem did behaviorists have with psychoanalytic ideas?
    They had a problem with theories that were based on "invisible" mental properties that were difficult to test and impossible to observe directly.
  19. How does a humanistic view of human nature differ from a Psychodynamic view?
    Humanistic view saw all humans as good and trying to improve
  20. How might exposure therapy help treat a phobia or fear of a specific object?
    It depends on the processes of habitation and response extinction.
  21. Token economy
    A form of behavior therapy in which clients are given tokens for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards
  22. Exposure therapy
    An approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response
  23. Cognitive therapy
    Focuses on helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world
  24. Cognitive restructuring
    A therapeutic approach that teach clients to question the automatic beliefs assumptions and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs
  25. How might a client restructure a negative self image into a positive one?
    Cognitive restructuring to question the beliefs held about themselves and to change them and make them better
  26. Mindfulness meditation
    Teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment; to be aware of his or her thoughts, feelings, and sensations; and to detect symptoms before they become a problem
  27. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
    A blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies
  28. Why do most therapists use a blend of cognitive and behavioral strategies?
    The technique acknowledges that there may be behaviors that people cannot control through rational thought, BTU also that there are ways of helping people think more rationally when thought does play a role
  29. When is group therapy the best option?
    When people might be Abel to recover from disorders in the same way they got them, not as an individual effort but through social process
  30. Group therapy
    A technique in which multiple participants (who often do not know one another at the outset) work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere
  31. What are some of the pros and cons of group therapy?
    • Pro: You're not alone, group members model appropriate behavior, can share insight
    • Cons: Difficult to assemble a group with similar needs, problems with members undermining each other, particular members dominate conversation, less attention than they could have gotten in one on one sessions
  32. What are the pros and cons of self help support groups?
    • Pro: Support from a community, cost effective,
    • Con: Disruptive or aggressive or encourage bad behavior, oversensitive to symptoms they might not have otherwise had
  33. Humanistic approach and existential approaches
    Focus on helping people to develop a sense of personal worth
  34. Behavior therapy applies
    Learning principles to specific behavior problems
  35. Cognitive therapy is focused on helping
    People to change the way they think about events in their lives, and teaching them to challenge irrational thoughts.
  36. Cognitive behavior therapy which merges
    Cognitive and behavioral approaches has been shown to be affective for treating a wide range of psychological disorders
  37. Group therapies target couples, families, or groups of clients
    Brought together for the purpose of working together to solve their problems
  38. Self help and support groups
    Such as AA are common in the US and around the world but not well studied
  39. Psychodynamic therapies, including psychoanalysis, emphasize helping clients gained insight into their unconscious conflicts.
    Traditional psychoanalysis involves 4-5 sessions a week with a client lying on a couch free associating, whereas modern Psychodynamic therapies involve one session per week with face to face interactions in which therapists help clients solve interpersonal problems
  40. Antipsychotic drugs
    Medications that are used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders
  41. Psychopharmacology
    The study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms
  42. Antianxiety medications
    Drugs that help reduce a person's experience of fear or anxiety
  43. Antidepressants
    A class of drugs that help lift people's moods
  44. What do antipsychotic drugs do?
    They block dopamine receptors in parts of the brain like the mesolimbic area, an area between the tegmentum (in the Midbrain) and various Subcortical structures. It reduces dopamine activity in these areas
  45. What are the advantages of the newer, atypical antipsychotic medications?
    They appear to affect both dopamine and serotonin systems, blocking both types of receptors.
  46. What are some reasons for caution when prescribing Antianxiety medications?
    Benzodiazepines have a potential for abuse, are associated with drug tolerance and risk withdrawal symptoms
  47. What are the most common antidepressants used today? How do they work?
    • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are among the most common.
    • They block the reuptake of serotonin in the brain, which makes more serotonin available in the synaptic space between neurons. The greater availability of serotonin in the synapse gives the neuron a better chance of recognizing and using this neurotransmitter in sending the desired signal.
  48. Why aren't antidepressants prescribed for bipolar disorder?
    In the process of lifting one's mood, they might actually trigger a manic episode in a person with bipolar disorder. They are treated with mood stabilizers instead
  49. Why are herbal remedies used? Are they actually effective?
    They are easily available over the counter, less expense and perceived as "natural" alternatives. They aren't considered medications by regulatory agencies so they are more likely to get away with crap but there is research support for the effectiveness of some herbal and natural products-though it's not overwhelming.
  50. Where do people turn if psychological treatment and medications are unsuccessful?
    Electroconvulsive therapy is used primarily to treat severe depression that hasn't responded to antidepressant medications, it may also be useful for treating bipolar disorder.
  51. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    A treatment that involves inducing a brief seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain
  52. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
    A treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain
  53. Phototherapy
    A therapy that invokes repeated exposure to bright light
  54. Psychosurgery
    Surgical destruction of specific brain areas
  55. Medications have been developed to
    Treat many psychological disorders, including antipsychotic medications (for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders), Antianxiety (for anxiety disorders)  and antidepressants (for depression and related disorders)
  56. What are medications often combined with?
    Psychotherapy
  57. Biomedical treatments other than medication are
    Electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and psychosurgery- the last used in extreme cases, when other methods of treatment have been exhausted.
  58. What are three kinds of treatment illusions?
    • Maybe you would have gotten better despite taking a pill
    • Maybe the pill wasn't the active ingredient in your cure
    • Maybe after you're better you mistakenly remember having been more ill than you really were.
  59. Three potential illusions of treatment
    • Natural improvement
    • Placebo effects
    • Reconstructive memory
  60. Natural improvement illusion
    The tendency of symptoms to return to their mean or average level, the illusion happens when you conclude mistakenly that a treatment has made you better when you would have gotten better anyway
  61. What is the placebo effect?
    Nonspecific treatment effects can produce recovery. Just knowing you are getting a treatment can be a nonspecific treatment effect
  62. Placebo
    An inert substance or procedure that has been applied with the expectation that a healing response will be produced
  63. Why is a double blind experiment so important in assessing treatment effectiveness?
    So that nobody is affected by the placebo effect
  64. Iatrogenic illness
    A disorder or symptom that occurs as a result of a medical or psychotherapeutic treatment itself.
  65. Observing improvement during treatment does not
    Necessarily mean that the treatment was effective, it might instead reflect natural improvement, nonspecific treatment effects and reconstructive memory processes
  66. Treatment studies focus on
    Both treatment outcomes and processes, using scientific research methods such as double blind techniques and placebo controls
  67. Treatments for psychological disorders are generally more effective than no treatment at all but
    Some are more effective than others for certain disorders, and both medication and psychotherapy have dangers that ethical practitioners must consider carefully.

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