CSEch8

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Author:
jonesy
ID:
311585
Filename:
CSEch8
Updated:
2015-11-16 18:26:04
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computer
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CSECH8cse
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cse
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  1. They are the modern- day opponents of computer automation, who use the original Luddites as a symbol and inspiration. Believe that automation is always antiworker, and that workers are a vulnerable group
    Neo-Luddites
  2. is the disposal of electronic devices.  It typically occurs in developing countries due to the harmful toxins contained in the electronic devices.
    e-waste
  3. Who wrote a plan proposed by autoworkers  to pass productivity gains from robot workers on to human workers in the form of early retirement incentives?
    Ralph Nader
  4. List technologies that promote accessibility.
    • Screen-readers: Software that reads the text on the screen audibly
    • Predictive typing: Software that can tell which word you are trying to type based on the first few letters
    • Subtitles: Software that displays the text of any audible dialog
    • High contrast displays: Software that changes the colors of the screen to make text easier to read
    • Haptic feedback: User interfaces that make cell phones vibrate
    • Text alternatives for images: On a Web page, provides a text description of an image so that a screen-reader can describe an image
  5. A situation in which one feels pressure not to do something, even though it is legal to do so, because of fear of prosecution
    chilling effect
  6. What are the major categories of vulnerable populations?
    • People controlled by institutions,
    • People with limited autonomy,
    • People with physical limitations or frailties, People with insufficient resources,
    • People at risk of being the victims of hate- motivated behaviors
  7. The degree to which people with disabilities can use a given technology,
    accessibility
  8. Who claims that automation mostly benefits those at the very top of society and coined the term Neo-Luddites?
    Kirkpatrick Sales.
  9. Who stated that access to the Web should be a considered a fundamental right?
    Tim Berners-Lee
  10. attempt to systematically identify the ways that a technology might be vulnerable to a malicious attack
    threat analysis
  11. What is the difference principle for the Theory of Justice?
    Sociio-economic status should be allowed if and only if they benefit least advantage.
  12. It is a right that one cannot obtain without the help of other people.
    claim right
  13. What are the moral theories that our textbook uses to describe why vulnerable groups should be taken into consideration when developing new technologies?
    Rawl’s Theory of Justice, Utilitarianism, Noddings Ethics of Caring.
  14. is the gap between technology haves and have- nots
    digital divide
  15. is the  freedom for an entity to make decisions without outside constraints or interference.
    Autonomy
  16. What are reasons that gun camera footage is used by the military?
    • review soldiers’ actions during a firefight. evaluate and refine tactics,
    • verify whether or not a particular target was killed,
    • to identify friendly fire incidents
  17. What impacts positive and negative has technology had on the ability of institutions to control people.
    • Positive: increase personal liberty by creating new outlets for organizing and communication.
    • Negative: as more and more of our daily lives are spent online, whoever controls the online sphere has an ever greater degree of control over individual lives
  18. What problem does utilitarianism have when dealing with vulnerable groups?
    Since it is easy to overlook vulnerable groups in these calculations, because such groups are often small or lacking in political power, the result could mean that calculation of the net change in utility is incorrect.  Because utilitarian analyses tend to focus on how a decision affects the majority, a careful utilitarian has a special duty to counteract this by paying special attention to vulnerable groups.
  19. Which moral theory is most applicable to vulnerable groups and why?
    Rawls’ Theory of Justice.  Because of  the difference principle, Rawls’s theory requires us to analyze how any proposed changes to society would affect the least advantaged, and to show that such changes would benefit them.
  20. What argument based on the veil of ignorance supports Rawls’ Theory of Justice as applied to vulnerable groups?
    According to Rawls’s  “veil of ignorance” argument, if we didn’t know whether or not we were a member of a vulnerable group, we would want to hedge our bets by making sure that society takes care of vulnerable people.

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