Equine2- Scaly Skin

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
311610
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Equine2- Scaly Skin
Updated:
2015-11-17 10:02:19
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vetmed equine2
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vetmed equine2
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  1. Why is unwanted desquamation so detrimental?
    it represents a breach in the epidermal barrier, allowing unwanted pathogens into the body
  2. What is the purpose of the lipid layer? (5)
    regulates permeability of the epidermis, regulates desquamation, exclude toxins, absorb chemicals, antimicrobial peptides
  3. What is the purpose of the corneocyte? (3)
    mechanical reinforcement, provides hydration, UV protection
  4. When is desquamation normal?
    in production of a fresh, intact barrier in the face of accumulated damage or changing body mass
  5. Dry, white/ gray scales; dull coat.
    seborrhea sicca
  6. Greasy of oily, malodorous coat/skin.
    seborrhea oleosa
  7. Associated with folliculitis (usually bacterial in origin); combination of dry and greasy scales.
    seborrheic dermatitis
  8. What is the least common type of seborrhea?
    primary- direct result of a disease process
  9. Types of primary seborrhea.
    linear keratosis, epidermal nevus (hamartoma),coronary band dystrophy, cannon keratosis, mane/tale seborrhea
  10. Describe this disease.
    • Coronary Band Dystrophy
    • Idiopathic defect of cornification
    • Draft breeds, mature horses, insidious onset
  11. Describe this disease.
    • Cannon Keratosis
    • Disorder of cornification- hyperkeratosis
    • Localized to dorsal cannon
    • Vaseline, treat secondary infection if present
  12. Describe this disease.
    • Linear Keratosis
    • Quarter horses, Belgians- Inherited
    • Linear, vertical, unilateral band of hyperkeratosis
    • Cosmetic blemish- don't treat
  13. Describe this disease.
    • Epidermal Nevus (Harmatoma)
    • Most commonly affects plantar metatarsus (can affect all 4 limbs)
    • Dx by clinical appearance
    • +/- secondary infections
  14. Describe this disease.
    • Mane and Tail Seborrhea- Primary
    • Seborrhea oleosa
    • Pruritic
  15. What types of seborrhea can be treated vs cannot?
    Primary can be managed, not treated; secondary can be resolved if underlying cause is determined and addressed
  16. Describe this disease.
    • Secondary Nutritional seborrhea
    • Alopecia- patchy
  17. Describe this disease.
    • Immune-mediated Pemphigus foliaceus
    • Foals
    • Superficial pustural crusting disease
    • Usually resolves without lifelong txt
  18. Describe this disease.

    • Onchocerciasis
    • Infectious- result from nematode infection
    • Microfilaria migrate to skin, die, cause mazotti reaction
  19. What questions do you ask when taking a history to determine the cause of secondary seborrhea? (5)
    duration, initial lesions and how have they progressed?, pruritus?, used any topical products?, other affected horses?
  20. What does pruritus present before seborrhea suggest?
    allergic disease, parasitic disease
  21. What does pruritus after seborrhea suggest?
    secondary bacterial folliculitis, yeast dermatitis
  22. At the minimum, you must perform a(n) _____________ to identify the cause of secondary seborrhea in order to...
    superficial skin scrape; rule out ectoparasites.
  23. What is the purpose of performing surface cytology?
    rule out bacterial infection and/or yeast infection
  24. How do you identify fungal infections?
    DTM culture (dermatophyte test medium)
  25. Biopsy is used to... (2)
    determine bacterial culture results, histopathology
  26. What are the 3 main considerations for treatment of seborrhea?
    is it primary or secondary?, is there proper husbandry for the horse?, topical therapy is foundation of management/treatment
  27. Principals for normalizing keratogenesis. (3)
    shampoo with cleansing an therapeutic properties, remove excess corneocytes, more severe dermatitis--> more potent shampoo
  28. Agents that remove excess corneal layers by solubilization of the intercellular cement; used in mild disease.
    keratolytic agents
  29. Agents that function in the restoration of normal keratinocyte multiplication and the process of keratinization and epithelialization; indicated with more severe epidermal hyperplasia.
    Keratoplastic agents
  30. What are indications for use of salicylic acid?
    moderate to severe dry scale
  31. What are indications for use of sulfur?
    moderate to severe dry scale with suspected secondary bacterial, fungal, or parasitic components
  32. What are indications for using a combination of salicylic acid and sulfur?
    focal, adherent, thick, plaque-like greasy scale
  33. What are indications for use of benzoyl peroxide?
    severe greasy seborrhea oleosa
  34. What are indications for use of tar (coal)?
    severe seborrhea oleosa with epidermal hyperplasia
  35. When is it necessary to restore the barrier?
    moderate to severe seborrhea sicca
  36. How do you restore flexibility of the stratum corneum (prevent cracking)? (3)
    water (too transient), emollients (fill spaces), humectants (incorporated in SC and attracts water)

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