Card Set Information
Pregnancy risk also first line and cost effective.
ask about iodine or shellfish allergy
No metal objects, ask about implants such as pacemakers
looking into the joint, monitor site of incision
S&S of fractures
loss of function
Bone healing times
neonatal 2-3 weeks
early child hood 4 weeks
later child hood 6-8 weeks
adolescence 8-12 weeks
adults 12 weeks
circulation-C1-C4. C3,4,5 Keep the phrenic nerve alive.
Loss of 20% of blood or more will lead to decompensated shock
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit
Adults every 10 years. possible prophylaxis booster at 5 years if needed-break in skin.
Realign bones to restore neurovascular function. Under conscious sedation at times.
Splints, casts, ORIF-Open reduction internal fixation.
Crush injuries-shattered bone-
External fixator and pin care risks
Osteomyelitis-Infection of the bone- Proper cleanliness for pins in order to prevent this.
Of major long bones for pain relief and to help neurovascular.
ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
Early indicator of widespread inflammatory reaction due to infection or autoimmune disordersUsually normal in OA
HS-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein)
Non-specific response to acute inflammationIncrease after surgery indicates possible infectionShows inflammation earlier than ESR
Serum chemistry for bones
99% of calcium stored in bones and teeth
85% of phosphorous stored in bones and teeth
Bone disease can lead to an increase in the blood of hypercalcemia and hyperphosephatemia
Lab values for Muscle
CK-Creatine Kinase for skeletal and cardiac muscle
CPK-MM-Creatine phosphokinase for skeletal muscle
LDH- HS-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein)
AST (liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscles)
Early treatment-Rx for swelling, PT, Waterarobics, RICE for trauma, Injections of corticosteroid.
OA Nursing care
Degeneration of the articular cartilage in the joints caused by prolonged wear & tear of joint surfaces
designed to prevent narcotic overdoses
DVT post surgery
increased calf pain
increased tenderness above or below the knee
Veins you can see
Warmth and redness
Primary-part of aging
Secondary-Medical conditions, drug therapy-prednisone leads to this condition-prolonged immobility-not weight bearing.
Test for Osteoporosis
DEXA scan-duel energy x ray measures bones mineral density.
Nursing care for osteoporosis
Teach importance of wt Bearing exercise
Risks associated with osteoporsis
excessive caffeine-calcium loss in urine
lack of vitamin D for calcium uptake
high phosphorus intake-low calcium levels
protein intake too high or too low
excessive alcohol and tobacco use
eating disorders and female athletes-triad.
percutaneous-injection of bone cement into vertebra which reduces pain, increases function, restores strength.
example of a pathologic fracture leading to a fall in a geriatric patient.
Autoimmune disorder-women more prone
Chronic systemic disease of autoimmune cause with recurrent inflammation involving the synovium or lining of the joints
rheumatoid arthritis labs
rheumatoid factor RF
antinuclear titer ANA
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR
High sensitivity C-reactive protein hsCRP
Nursing Care for RA
Assess pain and stiffness
administer anti-inflammatory medications
implement strategies to protect joints-water aerobics
Vitamin D importance
synonym=cholecalciferol=vitamin D3 sunlight
VIT D +Parathyroid Hormone+Calcitonin regulate calcium metabolism and osteoblasts.
Ergocalciferol=Vitamin D2 absorbed from plants
deficiency Leads to increase risk of heart attack, fractures, hypertension and autoimmune diseases.
Deposit of urate (uric acid) crystals in & around joints; hereditary error in purine metabolism
Tophi (deposits of crystals on skin) present near joints & on outer ear; renal calculi
Meds to treat Uric acid build up.
Colchicine for acute treatment
NSAIDS for inflammation
Allopurinol for chronic treatment
Gout Lab tests
Serum Uric acid Levels
20% of patients develop kidney stones
club foot-congenital twisting of the foot
developmental dysplasia of the hip DDH- Congenital hip-Spica cast
Avascular necrosis of the femoral heads occurs in childhood
Osteomalacia and rickets
Softening of the bones due to demineralization-due to a deficiency of calcium and vitamin D. chronic renal failure also a risk factor.
Avulsion: tearing away by force-ex. skateboard tricks or a sprined ankle.
Communited: broken into pieces-ex. gunshot wound or crush injury.
Greenstick: One side of bone, not a complete break. ex-bending a live tree branch vs a dead one.
Compound: Open wound
Compression: squeezed together leading to Fx.
Depressed:Below normal level
Displaced: removed from normal
Impacted: packed together
Simple: Closed fracture/ not displaced
Spiral: like a thread of a screw