Zoonotic3- Mosquito Diseases

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  1. ________ cases of eastern equine encephalitis appear before ________ cases; ________ are the sentinel for __________.
    Equine; human; horses; human disease
  2. What is the most important vector for the enzootic cycle of EEE?
    Culiseta melanura- mosquito
  3. What are bridge vectors of EEE? (4)
    Coquilletidia spp., Aedes spp., Ochlerotatus soo, Culex nigrapalpus [all types of mosquitoes]
  4. What are dead-end hosts of EEE? (3)
    horses, humans, other mammals
  5. What animal is involved in the life cycle of EEE?
  6. How long is the incubation period of EEE in humans?
    4-10 days
  7. What are clinical signs of EEE in humans? (9)
    fever, myalgia, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, photophobia, [more severe] seizure, coma
  8. Survival rates of EEE associated with age. (humans)
    • young adults- best 70%
    • children- lower 60%
    • elderly- worst 30%
  9. How long is the incubation period for EEE in horses?
    5-14 days
  10. Clinical signs of EEE in horses. (8)
    fever, anorexia, depression, head pressing, circling, ataxia, paresis/paralysis, death within days
  11. Clinical signs of EEE in birds. (6)
    subclinical in most bird species, depression, tremors, leg paralysis, somnolence, death within 24hrs
  12. How do you diagnose EEE ante-mortem?
    serology [virus neutralization, hemagglutination, ELISA, complement fixation, virus isolation]
  13. How do you diagnose EEE post-mortem? (4)
    virus identified in brain tissue, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, RT-PCR
  14. How do you prevent EEE infections? (6)
    vaccination, source reduction, surveillance, biological control, chemical control (kill mosquitoes), educate public
  15. West Nile Virus infects... (5)
    humans, birds, mosquitoes, horses, and other mammals
  16. Where was WNV first isolated?
    Uganda West Nile District
  17. What are the possible modes of introduction of WNV in the US? (5)
    infected human host, human-transported vertebrate host, human-transported vector, storm-transported vertebrate host, intentional introduction
  18. What are the vectors of WNV? (3)
    Culex*, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [mosquitoes]
  19. What are the amplifying hosts of WNV?
  20. What are the incidental hosts of WNV? (3)
    horses, humans, other mammals
  21. How is WNV transmitted b/w mosquitoes?
  22. How is WNV transmitted b/w birds? (2)
    contact, migratory transport
  23. How is WNV transmitted to humans? (6)
    direct contact with infected birds, lab acquired, blood transfusion, organ transplant, transplacental, breast feeding
  24. What is the incubation of WNV in humans?
    2-14 days
  25. What are the 2 forms of disease caused by WNV?
    West Nile fever, West Nile neuroinvasive disease
  26. What is the most common form of disease caused by WNV?
    West Nile fever- resembles influenza and resolves in 2-6 days
  27. What are the 3 syndromes associated with West Nile neuroinvasive disease?
    encephalitis, meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis
  28. How do you diagnose WNV in humans? (2)
    serology (serum or CSF), detection of virus/Ag/nucleic acids
  29. How is WNV treated in humans and horses? (2)
    no specific therapy, supportive care
  30. Clinical signs of WNV in horses. (8)
    many asymptomatic, anorexia, ataxia, neural signs, colic, weakness, mortality
  31. How do you diagnose WNV ante-mortem in a horse?
  32. How do you diagnose WNV post-mortem in a horse?
    virus detection in brain and spinal cord
  33. What are clinical signs of WNV in ruminants? (3)
    neurologic signs, death within 2 days, repro signs (sheep only)
  34. Clinical signs of WNV in dogs and cats. (4)
    many asymptomatic, rarely fever/neuro signs/cardiac signs
  35. Prevention of WNV. (6)
    vaccinate horses (birds extra-label), source reduction, surveillance, biological control, chemical control, educating the public

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Zoonotic3- Mosquito Diseases
2015-11-18 02:52:39
vetmed zoonotic3

vetmed zoonotic3
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