Repro3- Canine Pregnancy
Card Set Information
Repro3- Canine Pregnancy
When do canine embryos reach the uterus?
7-10 days (longer than cows and horses, 5-6 days)
How long does intrauterine migration occur in dogs?When does fixation occur?
intrauterine migration for 12-17 days; fixation occurs b/w days 17-19
When can you see the embryo heartbeat on US?
When does the embryo become a fetus?
When can you do radiographs to determine if a bitch is pregnant and count the fetuses?
43-45 days (calcification occurs)
Describe canine placentation.
zonary, endotheliochorial placentation
What are hematophagious zones?
green borders of placenta- green vulvar d/c during whelping
What is the source of progesterone in the dog during pregnancy?
Functions of progesterone during pregnancy. (4)
uterine quiescence, closure of cervix, secretion of "uterine milk", alveolar development
If a bitch has a larger litter than expected for her breed, every puppy that is above the average correlates to...
decrease gestational age by 0.25 of a day (goes into labor later than expected)
Hormones required for the CL to produce progesterone. (2)
prolactin and LH (drugs that inhibit these hormones can abort the pregnancy)
Relaxin comes from the __________ and continues to peak from ________; why is this clinically relevant?
placenta; day 30 to whelping; blood test for pregnancy measures relaxin
Earliest that you can US bitch for vesicles? When do we usually do it and why?
day 20; day 30 because a vesicle is commonly lost early on
What is the traditional method of determining pregnancy in dogs? When is it performed?
abdominal palpation- find cervix and palpate uterus, which feels like a string of pearls; day 24-35
Why is abdominal palpation not a reliable method of pregnancy detection?
stool in the colon can be mistaken for pregnancy
When can you use the serum relaxin test to detect pregnancy?
day 30 or later
What are drawbacks to the serum relaxin test?
may be neg with a singleton pregnancy, if fetus is dead it will still be positive
How do you get a definitive fetal number?
radiographs at day 45- count skulls and spines
What is a normal fetal HR?
What does a consistent fetal HR of 180-200 bmp indicate?
What does a consistent fetal HR of 160-180 bpm indicate?
fetal stress, mild hypoxia--> think about C section
What does a consistent fetal HR of <160 bpm indicate?
severe fetal stress, get puppies out now
Complications of canine pregnancy.
gestational diabetes (rare), pregnancy toxemia, singleton pregnancy, infectious abortion
Gestational diabetes is _________ due to __________.
insulin resistance; progesterone
Why does pregnancy toxemia occur?
lack of energy (carbs) to meet demands- dogs that don't want to eat in late gestation, large litter
Clinical signs of pregnancy toxemia. (6)
ketonuria without glucosuria, hypoglycemia, weakness, tremors, seizures, coma
How do you treat pregnancy toxemia?
, provide adequate nutrition, if she is going to die-> terminate the pregnancy
What are the problems with singleton litters?
dystocia due to huge fetus, not enough cortisol to initiate parturition--> fetus outgrows placenta--> fetal death
How do you handle singleton pregnancy?
planned C-section, close fetal monitoring
Uterine infection during pregnancy can lead to... (2)
abortion or premature delivery
For a litter-bearing species to develop hydrops, there must be...
a defect with every single fetus.... THIS NEVER HAPPENS (maternal hydrops in golden retrievers is a misnomer)
How do you treat the genetic predisposition for large amounts of fetal fluid in a pregnant bitch?
supportive care, correct shock, elective C-section...
DO NOT FUCKING GIVE THESE DOGS DIURETICS
What happens 1-2 weeks before parturition? (4)
clear vulvar d/c, anorexia/panting, +/- mammary development, nesting behavior
What happens to a dog's body temp before parturition?
temperature drop ~24hr before parturition
What happens to progesterone right be parturition?
serum progesterone <2np/mL 12-24hr before parturition
What are the last fetal parts to ossify, thus allowing you to determine if a bitch is close to delivery based on rads?
tail, teeth, paws
Describe stage 1 of parturition. (6)
cervical dilation, restless, panting, anorexia, vomiting, nesting
Describe stage 2 of parturition. (4)
cervix dilated, abdominal contractions, clear vulvar d/c, delivery of pups
How much time should there be at a maximum b/w puppies during parturition?
<2hrs b/w each pup
Describe stage 3 of parturition. (1)
passage of placentas (don't let her eat them... can lead to gastroenteritis, intestinal obstruction, choke)
Stage 1 of labor should not last more than _______.
Stage 2 of labor should not last more than _________.
4hrs with no pup produced (with active contractions)
Number 1 caused of canine dystocia.
uterine inertia (primary-lochia w/o puppy; secondary- obese, feto-pelvic disproportion, elderly animal)
Maternal causes of dystocia. (2)
inadequate size of birth canal, uterine torsion (rare)
Fetal causes of dystocia. (2)
fetal oversize, abnormal presentation/posture
Describe medical management of dystocia.
depends on cause- oxytocin, calcium gluconate if hypocalcemia
When is oxytocin medical management contraindicated with dystocia?
What is the rule of thumb for giving oxytocin during parturition?
small doses- 3 strikes and you're out... if you've given 3 doses of oxytocin and there is no puppy yet, go to C-section
If assisted vaginal delivery, how do you pull a puppy out?
pull on head or pelvis, NOT LIMBS (you'll pull them off)