Repro3- Canine Pregnancy

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  1. When do canine embryos reach the uterus?
    7-10 days (longer than cows and horses, 5-6 days)
  2. How long does intrauterine migration occur in dogs?When does fixation occur?
    intrauterine migration for 12-17 days; fixation occurs b/w days 17-19
  3. When can you see the embryo heartbeat on US?
    day 23-24
  4. When does the embryo become a fetus?
    day 35
  5. When can you do radiographs to determine if a bitch is pregnant and count the fetuses?
    43-45 days (calcification occurs)
  6. Describe canine placentation.
    zonary, endotheliochorial placentation
  7. What are hematophagious zones?
    green borders of placenta- green vulvar d/c during whelping
  8. What is the source of progesterone in the dog during pregnancy?
    CL only
  9. Functions of progesterone during pregnancy. (4)
    uterine quiescence, closure of cervix, secretion of "uterine milk", alveolar development
  10. If a bitch has a larger litter than expected for her breed, every puppy that is above the average correlates to...
    decrease gestational age by 0.25 of a day (goes into labor later than expected)
  11. Hormones required for the CL to produce progesterone. (2)
    prolactin and LH (drugs that inhibit these hormones can abort the pregnancy)
  12. Relaxin comes from the __________ and continues to peak from ________; why is this clinically relevant?
    placenta; day 30 to whelping; blood test for pregnancy measures relaxin
  13. Earliest that you can US bitch for vesicles? When do we usually do it and why?
    day 20; day 30 because a vesicle is commonly lost early on
  14. What is the traditional method of determining pregnancy in dogs? When is it performed?
    abdominal palpation- find cervix and palpate uterus, which feels like a string of pearls; day 24-35
  15. Why is abdominal palpation not a reliable method of pregnancy detection?
    stool in the colon can be mistaken for pregnancy
  16. When can you use the serum relaxin test to detect pregnancy?
    day 30 or later
  17. What are drawbacks to the serum relaxin test?
    may be neg with a singleton pregnancy, if fetus is dead it will still be positive
  18. How do you get a definitive fetal number?
    radiographs at day 45- count skulls and spines
  19. What is a normal fetal HR?
    220-240 bpm
  20. What does a consistent fetal HR of 180-200 bmp indicate?
    fetal distress
  21. What does a consistent fetal HR of 160-180 bpm indicate?
    fetal stress, mild hypoxia--> think about C section
  22. What does a consistent fetal HR of <160 bpm indicate?
    severe fetal stress, get puppies out now
  23. Complications of canine pregnancy.
    gestational diabetes (rare), pregnancy toxemia, singleton pregnancy, infectious abortion
  24. Gestational diabetes is _________ due to __________.
    insulin resistance; progesterone
  25. Why does pregnancy toxemia occur?
    lack of energy (carbs) to meet demands- dogs that don't want to eat in late gestation, large litter
  26. Clinical signs of pregnancy toxemia. (6)
    ketonuria without glucosuria, hypoglycemia, weakness, tremors, seizures, coma
  27. How do you treat pregnancy toxemia?
    prevention, provide adequate nutrition, if she is going to die-> terminate the pregnancy
  28. What are the problems with singleton litters?
    dystocia due to huge fetus, not enough cortisol to initiate parturition--> fetus outgrows placenta--> fetal death
  29. How do you handle singleton pregnancy?
    planned C-section, close fetal monitoring
  30. Uterine infection during pregnancy can lead to... (2)
    abortion or premature delivery
  31. For a litter-bearing species to develop hydrops, there must be...
    a defect with every single fetus.... THIS NEVER HAPPENS (maternal hydrops in golden retrievers is a misnomer)
  32. How do you treat the genetic predisposition for large amounts of fetal fluid in a pregnant bitch?
    supportive care, correct shock, elective C-section... DO NOT FUCKING GIVE THESE DOGS DIURETICS
  33. What happens 1-2 weeks before parturition? (4)
    clear vulvar d/c, anorexia/panting, +/- mammary development, nesting behavior
  34. What happens to a dog's body temp before parturition?
    temperature drop ~24hr before parturition
  35. What happens to progesterone right be parturition?
    serum progesterone <2np/mL 12-24hr before parturition
  36. What are the last fetal parts to ossify, thus allowing you to determine if a bitch is close to delivery based on rads?
    tail, teeth, paws
  37. Describe stage 1 of parturition. (6)
    cervical dilation, restless, panting, anorexia, vomiting, nesting
  38. Describe stage 2 of parturition. (4)
    cervix dilated, abdominal contractions, clear vulvar d/c, delivery of pups
  39. How much time should there be at a maximum b/w puppies during parturition?
    <2hrs b/w each pup
  40. Describe stage 3 of parturition. (1)
    passage of placentas (don't let her eat them... can lead to gastroenteritis, intestinal obstruction, choke)
  41. Stage 1 of labor should not last more than _______.
    12 hrs
  42. Stage 2 of labor should not last more than _________.
    4hrs with no pup produced (with active contractions)
  43. Number 1 caused of canine dystocia.
    uterine inertia (primary-lochia w/o puppy; secondary- obese, feto-pelvic disproportion, elderly animal)
  44. Maternal causes of dystocia. (2)
    inadequate size of birth canal, uterine torsion (rare)
  45. Fetal causes of dystocia. (2)
    fetal oversize, abnormal presentation/posture
  46. Describe medical management of dystocia.
    depends on cause- oxytocin, calcium gluconate if hypocalcemia
  47. When is oxytocin medical management contraindicated with dystocia?
  48. What is the rule of thumb for giving oxytocin during parturition?
    small doses- 3 strikes and you're out... if you've given 3 doses of oxytocin and there is no puppy yet, go to C-section
  49. If assisted vaginal delivery, how do you pull a puppy out?
    pull on head or pelvis, NOT LIMBS (you'll pull them off)
Card Set:
Repro3- Canine Pregnancy
2015-12-05 00:58:45
vetmed repro3

vetmed repro3
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