patho exam 4 part 5

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patho exam 4 part 5
2015-11-30 00:22:51
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  1. What is Candidiasis (Candida albicans) ?
    a dimorphic fungus; grows as mycelium AND yeasts
  2. Where does Candidiasis occur?
    • mouth
    • digestive tract 
    • vagina 

    of perfectly healthy people
  3. Under some circumstances, Candidiasis may cause .... ?
    -severe, even fatal, infections w/ lesions and eruptions of skill, nails, mouth, bronchial tubes and lungs.
  4. What is Cryptococcosis (Crypococcus neoformans) ?
    yeast-like fungus that are endemic to soil, pigeon / bat droppings
  5. How is Crytococcosis acquired?
    • by inhalation
    • -dissemination 4rm lungs to CNS
  6. What is a highly neurotropic, fungal meningitis, possibly fatal (if not treated) pathogen?
    • Crytococcosis 
    • (create skin legions)
  7. Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii is a deadly....?
  8. Where was C. neoformans gattii inexorably (a deadly fungus) originally found?
    in eucalyptus trees native to Papua New Guinea, Australia and other tropical and subtropical locations, however the organism was recently found in North America in British Columbia. 

    bc of climate change, the hypervirulent strain was found in Oregon in 2007
  9. C. neoformans can also infect what animals?
    dogs, koalas, dolphins, and more.
  10. What's so scary about C. neoformans ?
    infects healthy individuals just as commonly as normal fungi infect only immunocompromised individuals.
  11. How can you get infected with C. neoformans gatti?
    • airborne pathogen usually found in soil/eucalyptus trees; inhalation of spores 
    • -one can only become infected by direct inhalation (do not spread 4rm human-to-human, animal-to-animal, or animal-to-human.)
  12. How long does it take for symptoms to appear for the pathogen C. neoformans gattii?
    2-14 months after exposure
  13. What can hypervirulent Cryptococcus gattii cause?
    • pulmonary cryptococcosis(lung infection)
    • basal meningitis
    • cerebral cryptococcomas
  14. Chest pain, shortness of breath, severe headache, muscle stiffness, sensitivity to light, double/blurred vision, seizures, confusion, dizziness, nausea, skin lesions, and a prolonged cough are all symptoms of what?
    Cryptococcus gattii 
  15. Diagnosis steps for C. neoformans gattii ..
    1. sample of tissue / body fluid is taken 4rm infected tissue and examined microscopically and/or cultured.

    2. Cryptococcal antigen test is run on body fluid to test for the disease.

    3. a tissue sample is run on selective agar to differentiate btwn C. neoformans and C. neoformans gattii. 

    blue growth on CGB agar indicated C. gattii
  16. Is there a vaccine for C. neoformans gattii infection ?
  17. Are there prevention techniques for C. neoformans gattii?
  18. An example of a treatment for C. neoformans gattii is... ?
    anti-fungal Amphotericin B intravenous therapy for 6-8 wks

    • (sometimes accompanied by oral ingestion/intravenous therapy of flucytosine) 
    • Nucleotide analogue-incorporated into RNA and disrupts transcription by inhibiting thymidylate synthase imp in DNA synthesis
  19. Another treatment used for C. neoforman is used in cases without central nerve damage inhibiting _______________ of cell membrane.
    ergosterol part
  20. Another treatment for C. neforman gettii is ....?
    surgery to remove infected brain / lung tissue
  21. Mycotoxins causes diseases called ...
    Mycotoxicoses (ex of secondary metabolites of moulds)
  22. Ergot and Ergotism is caused by ... ?
    ergot alkaloid 4rm Claviveps purpurea

    • 2 forms of disease 
    • -convulsive 
    • -gangrenou
  23. Claviceps purpurea produces ergotamine-ergocristine ________
  24. Claviceps purpurea causes gangrenous form of ergotism bc of their ..
    vasoconstrictive activity. 
  25. Other type of ergotism is...?
    a convulsive form related to intoxication w/ clavine alkaloids 4rm Claviceps fusiformis
  26. What was characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea,vomiting and giddiness) followed by effects on the central nervous system(drowsiness, prolonged sleepiness, twitching, convulsions, blindness and paralysis) ?
    Claviceps fusiformis
  27. Aflatoxins are produced by ...?
    several species of Aspergillus (occur in nuts, cereals and rice under conditions of high humidity and temp & present a risk to human health
  28. The main target organ for toxicity and carcinogenicity is what organ..?
  29. What is acutely toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic cmpds?