The Mystery Of History Volume I A Creation and Early Civilizations
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- "In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth" Gen. 1:1
- Day 1# Light and Darkness
- Day 2# Heaven
- Day 3# Seas, Earth, Grass, Herbs, Fruit Trees
- Day 4# Stars, Moon, Sun
- Day 5# Birds & Sea Creatures
- Day 6# Animals & Man
- Day 7# Rest
c. 6000 - 4000 B.C.
Adam and Eve
When Adam and Eve sinned, sin and death entered the world, Man had to work hard and woman had birth pains. They were ashamed. Adam Lived to be 930 years old. The Garden of Eden may have been in Mesopotamia.
c. 6000-4000 B.C.
Jubal and Tubal-Cain
- Jubal was the father of all those who play the harp and flute (organ). Tubal-Cain was a teacher of craftsman in bronze (Brass) and iron . There were many early cities : Babel, Nineveh, Calah (Great City).
- c. 5000 B.C.
Noah and the Flood
Gen. 6:5-6 The Wickedness of Man was great in the earth. God was grieved in his heart. The flood shows the Bible is true. Sea fossils have been found on Mountain tops. The world may look older than it is because of the damage from the great flood. Gen. 6:3 Man's lifespan was shortened from 800-900 yrs. to 120 years. Noah's story is a parallel to Jesus's story.
THE ICE AGE
- Factors that brought on the Ice Age:
- After the flood there was extra moisture, colder temperatures at the North and South Poles & colder climate everywhere from volcanic ash in the air, and new uplifted mountains with snow existed during the Ice Age.
- Man existed during the Ice Age. The entire earth was not covered by ice, only part of it was. Land bridges were exposed, It took time for plants to warm the earth again.
c. 3500-2500 B.C.
- Mary Mantell found a dinosaur tooth and other dinosaur bones. Sir Richard Owen in 1840 named these unknown animals Dinosaurs, terrible lizards. Job 40:15 Behemoth Job 41:1-8 Leviathan. It was possible that young dinosaurs were on the ark. Theories on extinction, post flood lack of vegetation. Ice Age was too cold for dinosaurs to survive. Post-Flood climate was a problem. Dinosaur remains contribute to fossil fuels.
- Created on 5th and 6th Days
- The Sumerians lived in the Fertile Cresent between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. Cradle of Civilization. The Sumerians show early man's intelligence, they created laws, irrigation systems, flushing toilets, hot and cold running water, calendars, poetry, libraries, and may have invented the wheel. Their language, cuneiform, was 600 wedge shaped symbols. In the 1900's Sir C. Leonard Woolley found royal tombs in the city of Ur.
- c. 3500-2500 B.C.
The Tower of Babel
- Gen. 11:1-9 Let us build us a city and a tower whose top may reach unto heaven, and let us make us a name. God confused their languages, so they stopped building the tower, then the people dispersed throughout the earth. There are c.5,000 languages in the world today. Genetic differences and the different races, came from this time. Babel meaning confusion. Babylon is in the same place were the tower of babel stood
- c. 3500-3000 B.C.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
- One of the oldest books ever written other than the Bible. It comes from the Sumerians but was later copied by the Babylonians. A poem about the past, about a hero named Gilgamesh, a king of Uruk, who falls asleep under a tree and wakes up to a snake that has robbed him of eternal life. He searches for eternal life for the sake of a dead friend Enkidu, but doesn't find it. Utnapishtim - was told by God to build a great ship.
- 2750 B.C.
- Stonehenge is a megalith in Wiltshire, England. Huge rock slabs 28 tons each, and 18 foot slabs of sandstone stood upright in a perfect circle around 100 ft. in diameter. On the inside of that circle were smaller blue rocks also standing in a circle, and inside that circle were rocks in the shape of horseshoes. Placement was in connection to the rising and setting of the sun and measured the moons and seasons. May have been used for places of worship or for burial grounds. It displays the genius of early man.
- c. 2700 B.C.
- Upper Egypt was were the land was higher. King Menes united upper and lower Egypt. One of the first true nations to be established. King Khafu built the first great pyramid at Giza. The Pyramid's base was as big as 10 football fields, and was as tall as a 40 story building. One stone weighed 2 1/2 - 15 tons. It is one of The Seven Wonders Of The Ancient World. The Egyptian written language was hieroglyphics. Kings and queens were preserved by mummification. The pyramids were built as burial chambers for the kings, queens, and their treasures
- c. 2575-2500 B.C.
The Minoan Civilization
- Sir Arthur Evans uncovered the remains of their culture. Lived on the island of Crete near southern Greece. "Land bridge between Asia and Europe." First important civilization in Europe. Palaces, roads, bathtubs, running water, toilets, & frescoes - a special painting on a wall made by applying paint to wet plaster. King Minos - Built a huge labyrinth (maze). Minotaur - part man, part bull, the monster in king Minos's maze. "Bull Leaping". Their civilization came to a sudden halt possibly from volcanic ash. Greek philosopher Plato- Minoans gave the basis for the sunken city of Atlantis. (has never been found).
- 2200 B.C.
- Lived 2,000 years b.c., founding father of the Jewish Faith. God called him out of Ur where they worshipped idols to go to the land of canaan. Promises - Gen. 12:1-3, 13:14-15, 17:8. Lot also went with Abraham & was called to leave Sodom and Gomorrah - Lot's wife looked back & tuned into a pillar of salt. God changed Abram's name to Abraham - father of a great nation. Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham, Hagar's son was Ishmael. God promised Abraham a son - Isaac, then God asked Abraham to sacrifice Isaac. We are blessed because Abraham obeyed. This story is a foreshadowing of the future salvation of the world through Jesus's sacrifice.
- 2100 B.C.
Jacob & Esau
- Were twin sons to Isaac and Rebekah, & grandsons to Abraham. Esau - red hair, very hairy, hunter, his fathers favorite. Jacob - born holding his brothers foot - supplanter, plain man, dwelling in tents, his mothers favorite. Esau - " feed me with that same red pottage" Jacob - "sell me this day thy birthright," deceived his father into giving him the final blessing, was deceived by Laban when he was given Leah instead of Rachel to marry, had to work seven extra years for Rachel. Rachel - Joseph and Benjamin. Bilhah - Dan and Naptali. Leah - Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun and Dinah. Zilpah - Gad and Asher.
- 2005 B.C.
- Favored greatly by his father. Given coat of many colors, brothers jealous. Sold by his brothers into slavery, bought by Potiphar in Egypt, Potiphar's wife tried to tempt Joseph and when that didn't work she lied, saying that Joseph tried to commit adultery with her, for this he was put in prison where God was with him and helped him to interpret dreams. Pharaoh called Joseph out of prison to interpret his dreams which Joseph did with God's help and was given the position of Prime minister. Joseph told pharaoh to store up grain against the famine. Joseph's brothers came to buy grain from Joseph and bowed down to him. Joseph forgave his brothers and his whole family came to live in Egypt.
- 1914 B.C.
- Hammurabi was king of Babylon. He wrote a code of 300 laws. The Laws included: standards for land deals, trading, military service, loans and debts, wages, family disputes & witchcraft. He also worked on fair taxation and minimum wage. Hammurabi's penalties where harsh, unfair & inconstant. Hammurabi gave glory only to himself. The ten commandments God gave Moses had to do with worship of one God, gave God all the glory, and were fair and just.
- 1792 B.C.
The Israelites in Slavery
- There arose a new Pharaoh who knew not Joseph, and he thought of the Isrealites as a threat (he was afraid they would be disloyal). He set harsh taskmasters over them. The slaves were used to help build some of the magnificent structures of the Egyptians. Pharaoh commanded the Hebrew midwives to kill all the Hebrew baby boys, but the midwives feared God and saved the male children alive. So God blessed them. Pharaoh commanded all the boy babies thrown into the river. Baby Moses was saved from this.
- c. 1875 - 1730 B.C.
China and the Shang Dynasty.
- High mountains, deserts, and oceans are the borders of China. Because of the natural barriers and the difficult journey, China did attract many outside visitors. Asian people have distinct physical features because of much interbreeding - almond shaped eyes and jet black hair. Chinese Culture - oldest pure remnant of an ancient civilization. Dynasty - a family that obtains power and keeps it for centuries. 10 or more dynasties have ruled china. 1st dynasty - Xia. 2nd - Shang Dynasty. Started a written language with 50,000 characters. Bronze, horse driven chariots, silkworms - silk fabric, silkworms only eat mulberry leaves. His-Ling-Shi - Empress first to have planted mulberry trees to feed silkworms. Silk was used like money and was used for trading. The chinese kept the method of making silk a secret for c. 3,000 years.
- c.1600-1066 B.C.
Moses and the Exodus
- Moses - to draw out. Egyptians erased "bad" history. Moses may have grown up alongside Ramses the Great. Some believe it was Amenhotep II, because his son didn't reign after him, possibly because he died in the plagues, Amenhotep IV abandoned the worship of the Egyptian gods for one god. Each of the ten plagues seem to defy one of the false gods of Egypt. Passover - illustration of salvation through the blood of Christ. The exodus lasted 40 years. Miracles - red sea parted, manna, water from the rock, pillar of cloud & pillar of fire.
- c. 1525-1270
The Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle
- Promised land - Canaan, Israel. God miraculously provided for the Israelites for 40 years in the desert. God himself went down to meet with the Israelites at Mount Sinai. Moses was on Mount Sinai for 40 days and 40 nights. God gave Moses the ten commandments, instructions for building the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle - dwelling place of God. 3 sections of the Tabernacle - court, Holy place, and Holy of Holies. Day of Atonement - once a year the high priest entered the most Holy. The Tabernacle symbolises our own salvation through Christ's blood. Heb. 9:11-14
- c. 1500 B.C.
Joshua, Jericho, and Rahab
- Joshua, led the Israelites into the land of Cannan. The people living in Cannan were evil in God's sight. Rahab heard the miraculous stories of them crossing the Red Sea and surviving in the desert, and she believed. God's strange plan to conquer Jericho was to show it was God doing it. God uses all kinds of people (harlots) to bring about His plans. By faith Rahab became part of the bloodline of Jesus.
- c. 1470 B.C.
Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti
- 18th dynasty. Amenhotep IV lived c. 2 generations after Moses. Nefertiti was considered one of the more beautiful women of Egyptian history. Worshipped one god, abolished other Egyptian gods. Some believe Amenhotep II was the actual pharaoh during the exodus. Nefertiti may not have been an Egyptian. Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti - genuine loving relationship. Amenhotep married again to try to have sons. Nefertiti was co-regent. One of their daughters married king Tut. The one god they worshipped was the sun god, aten. Amenhotep built a temple for worshipping aten. He also moved the capital of Egypt to the same location. Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten - "Pious servant of Aten". The Egyptians returned to their old gods and moved the capital back after his death and the capital was moved back.
- c. 1353 B.C.
Tutankhamen (King Tut)
- Tut began to rule at age 8 or 9. He only lived to be c. 18. 1922- archaeologist Howard Carter discovered King Tut's tomb completely untouched. Most of the known pyramids were wiped clean by robbers. Several rooms were found piled from floor to ceiling with thousands of Tut's things. Coffin - 4 layers, the third layer was made of 2,500 lbs. of pure gold (gold mask), carved wooden boats, statues of women grinding grain, models of homes and gardens. Why Tut died young? - some think he was murdered by Ay, others think he was murdered for his beliefs. Tut's original name was Tutankhaten - "Beautiful in life is aten". Priests of old Egyptian religion forced him to change his name and religion. Tut's widow was to marry a prince from another country, however, he was killed, and Ay ruled Egypt. King Tut & part of his coffin were returned to the original tomb along the Nile river in the valley of the kings.
- c. 1333 B.C.
Ramses II (The Great)
Egypt is divided into 12 kingdoms. The 4 main ones are: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, the Early New Kingdom, and the Later New Kingdom. Ramses II was from the later new kingdom also called the Golden Age - Many scholars believe he was the pharaoh during the Exodus. Ramses came to power when Egypt was weak. He fought the Hittites (made a treaty with them in Syria) & the Philistines. Ramses started a massive building campaign, he constructed a temple or building in almost every important city in Egypt. He built the largest columned hall ever. It's called "The Great Hall" - columns were up to 78' high. Also built: Mortuary on west bank @ Thebes, temple- with 4 massive figures resembling Rameses @ Abu Simbel. The great empire of ancient Egypt began to dwindle after the reign of Ramses & it never rose to the height it had known. Ramses II may have been one of Egypt's last strong Pharaohs.
Legend of the Trojan Horse
- A legend written by a Greek named Homer called the Iliad, about a war between the Mycenaeans of Greece and the Trojans of Turkey. Paris - Prince of Troy, judged a beauty contest between three goddesses. He chose Aphrodite. She promised him the most beautiful woman in the world. Paris met Helen, fell in love, eloped, and moved to Troy. Menelaus - King of Sparta (a city state in Greece). Helen's rightful Greek husband. Agamemnon - Menelaus's brother who warred against the Trojans to retrieve Helen. Odysseus - another Greek king who thought of building a giant horse & presenting it as a peace offering to the Trojans. Soldiers were hiding in the horse. The War lasted for ten years. Paris was killed. Helen went back to Greece with Menelaus and lived in peace for many years together.
- Heinrich Schliemann - A German believed it to be true. He went to Turkey and found several layers of cities all on top of one another where Troy once stood. One city had been burned. He found Priam's treasure which he smuggled into Germany. 1996 - Priam's treasure found and put on display in Moscow. Parts of the Iliad are based on Greek mythology. The rest? May be true, may be fiction.
- 1250 B.C.
Ruth and Naomi
- Naomi - Hebrew woman whose husband has died, her two sons married Moabite women, which was forbidden. Then her two sons died. She advises her two daughters-in-law to go back to their fathers house, one daughter-in-law agrees, but Ruth says "Where you go, I will go, wherever you lodge, I will lodge, your people shall be my people, & your God, my God". Hebrew tradition - the nearest male relative, or kinsman, would assume responsibility for the widow. Ruth goes to Boaz's field to pick up leftover grain. Ruth makes a wedding proposal to Boaz. Boaz is touched by Ruth's change of faith, her goodness to Naomi, & that she didn't go after young men. Boaz marries Ruth & they have a baby, Obed- Father of Jessie, Father of David - Father of Jesus.
- c. 1200 B.C.
- Many Hebrews were influenced by pagan culture, and worshiped false gods. The israelites were being bullied by the midianites who were destroying the increase of the earth. Gideon was threshing grain in a winepress when an angel appeared to him & told him to tear down the idol of Baal, & that God would be with him against the Midianites. Signs given - God set on fire meat, fleece wet, ground dry, fleece dry ground wet, and dream interpretation. God wanted Israel to trust Him and not in their armies, so they only had 300 men. At night, trumpets, empty pitchers, and lamps. They broke the pitchers, blew the trumpets, shouted "The Sword of the Lord and of Gideon." The midianites ran, and cried, and fled. The Lord set every man's sword against his fellow. Gideon judged Israel for 40 years.
- 1199 B.C.
- Samson judged Israel for 20 years. Nazirite- never drink alcohol, never touch something dead, never cut one's hair. God gave Samson unusual strength. Samson killed more philistines in his death than in his life.
- c. 1175 B.C.
Zhou (or Chou) Dynasty
(Both pronounced Joe)
- Zhou dynasty started around the same time as Ruth & Boaz. King Wen founded the Zhou dynasty. King Wu overthrew the Shang family. The Zhou dynasty was divided into Eastern and Western regions. The West didn't last long, families kept dividing up the land. Strong military. The East made millet, coins and iron. Lasted a lot longer - leaders were picked by expertise and not born into position. Huge gap between rich and poor. The poor often made up the armies. Very high standards of behavior. Lasted 800 years.
- c. 1122 B.C.
- Last judge. Samuel was a prophet of God. Hannah - prayed for a son and vowed to give him back to God for a lifetime of service. Samuel served God in the tabernacle with Eli the Priest.
- c. 1113 B.C.
- Saul - anointed the first King of Israel. Chosen by God. Shy. The Holy Spirit of God came upon him and he prophesied. Samuel told Saul to wait 7 days for him to come & offer the sacrifice. Saul didn't wait, he offered the sacrifice himself. Saul disobeyed again when God told him to utterly destroy the Amalekites. Saul spared Agag & the best of the sheep. The spirit of the Lord departed from Saul & an evil spirit from the Lord troubled him. Saul allowed jealousy and pride to rule him. He was jealous of David and hunted for him to kill him. Saul ended his own life in Battle.
- c. 1100 B.C.
- David was anointed the second king of Israel. He was chosen by God. A man after God's own heart. David behaved wisely in all his ways and the Lord was with him (holy spirit). David trusted in God with all his heart. David chose to spare saul's life. He danced before the lord with all his might. David wanted to build God a house. David showed Mephibosheth mercy. God made a covenant with David to assure him that his throne would last forever. (fulfilled through Jesus). David tried to hide his sin with Bathsheba by having Uriah killed. David was a man that accepted God's punishment for his sin. Absalom, David's son, rebelled against him but David still loved him. David reigned as king of Israel for 40 years.
- c. 1055 B.C.
- Solomon asked for wisdom. Solomon built a beautiful temple for the Lord. Solomon wrote Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, and most of Proverbs. Solomon realised that wealth and fame are not everything. Deut. 17:16 - says to not multiply horses, wives, silver, or gold. Solomon disobeyed these words. Solomon had 700 wives & 300 concubines. Solomon's wives turned his heart after other gods. God told Solomon his kingdom would be torn in two because he disobeyed. Very few of Israel's later kings ever honored the Lord again as had David & Solomon in their early years.
- c. 1015 B.C.
- (Canaanites) lived by the Mediterranean. Greatest seafarers & traders of the ancient age. Settled a city - Carthage in N. Africa. Murex Snail - purple red dye (smelly job). transparent glass. Alphabet- made symbols to represent just one sound. King Hiram & Jezebel. The phoenicians worshiped baal. Ez. 26 - prophecy of the destruction of Tyrus. City of Byblos (the word bible comes from)
- c. 1000 B.C.
The kingdom of Israel Divides
- Rehoboam rejected the elders council and consulted the young men. I Kings 12:11 - "I will add to your yoke." 10 tribes rebelled against Rehoboam. Northern Kingdom - 10 tribes, King Jeroboam - made golden calves. Southern Kingdom - 2 tribes Judah (the word Jew comes from), & Benjamin, King Rehoboam - I Kings 14:22 Judah did evil in the sight of the Lord. God sent prophets to both kingdoms to try to turn the people from their sins.
- c. 925 B.C.
Elijah the fiery prophet
- Elijah lived during the reigns of Ahab, Ahaziah, and Jehoram - all kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Ahab - I Kings 16:30 did evil more than all who were before him. Married Jezebel and started to worship baal. No rain until Elijah says. Ravens. Widow of Zarephath, meal and oil shall not fail, widows son died and Elijah prayed and God raised her son. Mt. Carmel - God sent fire in answer to Elijah's prayer. Elijah fled from Jezebel and asked God to take his life. God sent an angel, 40 days without food. Elijah anoints Elisha. Elijah Confronts Ahab about vineyard. Ahaziah - evil, called on a false god to know future. God sent Fire and killed Ahaziah's men two times. Ahaziah died as Elijah prophesied. II Kings 2:11 - chariot of fire. Mal. 4:5-6 - Elijah will come again. Matt.11:14 John the Baptist = Elijah?
- c. 859 B.C.
- Elisha and Jesus similar miracles. There had been no rain during battle against the Moabites. Elisha made water, Moabites thought it was blood. Moabites lost. Elisha healed Naaman's leprosy. Widow's oil. Promised the shunamite woman a son, later raised son from the dead. Dead man touched Elisha's grave and rose to life. Elisha did at least 17 miracles.
- c. 840 B.C.
Joel & Obadiah
Joel & Obadiah were minor prophets. Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel are major prophets.
Joel preached to Judah abut a locust plague. Jehoash (Joash) was a good king until Jehoida the priest died. Jehoash was 7 when he became king. Joel alive c. the same time as Elisha. Joel also prophesied that if Judah did not repent, their land would be wasted by other countries. Joel 2:30-31 - prophecy of the end times. Joel describes the locusts like armies. Joel wanted Judah to be restored spiritually.
- Obadiah preached to the Edomites - descendants of Esau who lived in a mountainous region and didn't worship the one true God. Obadiah 1:4,8 - Edomites do not exist anymore. Edom- depended on themselves instead of God. Edom means "red".
- 835 B.C.
- Homer wrote the Odyssey and the Iliad. Iliad about the siege of Troy and the Trojan Horse. Odyssey tells of a hero, Odysseus who traveled back to Ithaca after the Trojan war. Homer was a bard - a person who wrote long epics or poems and retold them over and over. Homer added Greek mythology. Heinrich Schliemann - excavated Troy, much evidence found to support main events of the stories real. Greeks memorized Homer's tales. Homer was probably blind. Iliad - c. 700 original copies.
- New Testament - over 24,000 originals. Iliad - written 700-1,500 years after it happened. New Testament written 15-60 years after it happened (shows the Bible is a historically accurate/authentic document).
- c. 800 B.C.
India and Hinduisim
- India gets it's name from the Indus river, where a great civilization thrived 2500 B.C. It disappeared, no one knows why. Later the Dark skinned Dravidians (possibly descendants of Ham) lived in Northern India. c. 1500 B.C. the light skinned Aryans (possibly descendants of Japheth) crossed the Himalayas and invaded the Dravidians. Ayrans and Dravidians enemies. Vedas like epics. Oldest rig-Vedas. Sanskrit Ayrans language. No man or woman credited wi founding hinduism. Well established by 800 B.C. " Sanatan Dharma" = " eternal religion". Brahman supreme spirit, hundreds of gods as stepping stones to Brahman. Celebrate them at colorful festables. Do not congragate, worship at home. Reincarnate - another chance to live a good life, bad life - animal, sacred cows,= Law of Karma. Ayrans made caste system:
- 4 major casts,
- Brahmans = priests,
- Kshatriyas = Warriors and Rulers,
- Vaisyuas = farmers and craftsmen,
- Sudras = unskilled laborers,
- Untouchables = outcasts. were outlawed in 1947 but this class still exists today.
- c. 3,000 casts in Hindus India today.
- Unknown Date
The Olympic Games
- Olympic games started by Greeks. Probably to keep soldiers in shape for battle. Held on the plains of olympia in Elis, Greece. First the Eleans started the games with just foot races held in honor of zeus, king of their gods. Later jumping, discus throwing, javelin throwing, and wrestling. Boxing and chariot racing were later added. 40,000 spectators could view a track at one time. Women not allowed to compete in or see the olympics. Athletes were nude. Women had their own running events in festival called Heraia after goddess Hera. Pentathlon - 5 events= running, jumping, wrestling, discus and javalin throwing. Still used today. 5 days every 4 years. Winners given olive wreaths, palm branches and woolen ribbons. Some athletes became favorites/professionals made a living by representing their city state. Runners passed flaming torch. The winner lit the alter. Olympics lasted until Olympia was destroyed by earthquakes in A.D. 395. Resurrected by Frenchman in late 1800's.
- 776 B.C.
Jonah and Amos
- God's concern for other nations besides Israel:
- told Jonah to go to Ninivah ( in Assyria- had a reputation for skinning people alive.) Jonah tried to hide, tried to go to Tarshish but God made a storm. Big fish. Repented. ( Assyrians eventually went to war against the Israelites.)
- Amos lived in Judah. was a herdsman and a fig farmer. God told him to go to Samaria, Israel. He listened. Saw powerful visions - God threatening Israel with locusts and fire unless they repent. the lord measuring the sins of Judah against a plumb line. Israel had been getting too independent. They did not repent. The high priest, Amaziah, had Amos thrown out of the city.
- Jonah and Amos were around just decades before the Israelites fell to Assyria as punishment for their sins.
- c.760 B.C.
The City of Rome
- Today a city in the west of Italy. Over 1,000yrs. before Christ, tribes of people called the Italiis lived in S. Italy. (where Italy got it's name). The Latins were the strongest tribe- lived on the w. coast. farming. natural ports. Latium Plain. Tiber river- for ships to sail far into the main land. Established a settlement called Roma - legend says it came from the story of the twin brothers, Romulus and Remus. abandoned by wicked king. Saved by she-wolf. Grandfather. quarreled, Romulus killed Remus and became king. Another legend - seven hills. seven kings ruled early Rome. Language-Latin (not used as an every day language but many of our modern languages came from Latin) people went back to their own languages when the Roman Empire fell. Etruscans- blended with the Latins to become the powerful Romans. crafts, leather working, paving streets, sewer systems, weapons, metal. Believed hens could tell future. wishbone.
- 753 B.C.
Isaiah and Micah
- Bible - 66 books
- 39 - OT
- 27 - NT
- Isaiah- "eloquence", well educated, married, had two sons. 66 chapters: 39 about law/covenant, 26 mainly tell of Jesus's coming. Harsh and compassionate. May have been killed by Manasseh by sawing him in half in a tree.
- Micah- farmer. wrote about God's disgust with the sins of Jerusalem/God's love for his people. Wrote where Jesus would be born.
- 740 B.C. and 735 B.C.
Israel falls to Assyria
- Israel worshipped idols. Caused their sons and daughters to pass through the fire. witchcraft. Assyria took over the N. Kingdom of Israel. 27,290 Israelites were deported to Assyria by king Sargon, and replaced by Samaritans. Lions attacked Samaritans in their new home. The Samaritans asked the king of Assyria to send back some Jewish priests to help them understand the religion and God of that land. Mixed Jewish religion with their religion. Despised. Israelites never freed. "lost tribes of Israel". disappeared over time. Jews today descended from the S. Kingdom. Hosea - last major prophet before the Assyrians came.
- 722 B.C.
- Prophet to the N. Kingdom of Israel. Hosea's life used in a unique way to show the people how God's heart can hurt from our sins. God told Hosea to marry a harlot (a sinful woman who commits adultery) named Gomer and have children with her. They had three children, each given a specific name to indicate how God was going to scatter the Israelites. (son) Jezreel:"God scatters", (daughter) Lo-Ruhamah:"not pitied", (son) Lo-Ammi:"not my people". Israelites abandoned their love for God, worshiped idols, did not repent, taken away by Assyrians. Israel's actions demonstrated Gomer's. loved other men, left children and husband. Hosea did not stop loving his wife, he went looking for her and brought her back. Even though the Israelites were guilty of lying, swearing, killing, stealing, acts of adultery, and bloodshed, God still loved his children.
- c. 701 B.C.
Hezekiah and Sennacherib
- Hezekiah- became king of Judah at age 25, Godly character. Sennacherib- king of Assyria, very proud, wanted to conquer Judah: "Has any of the gods of the nations at all delivered its land from the hand of the king of Assyria?...Look! You have heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands by utterly destroying them; and shall you be delivered?" Hezekiah's prayer: 2 Kings19:15,19, God answered. That night the angel of the Lord went out, and killed 185,000 people in the Assyrian camp; and when people arose early in the morning, there were corpses-all dead. When Sennacherib went home, he was assassinated by his own sons. Hezekiah became sick and very near death. Humbled himself again, prayed and wept to God. God answered his prayers again. Hezekiah was healed and lived another 15yrs. rebuilt some very significant waterways for Jerusalem. the prophet Isaiah helped guide him along with words from the Lord, and Hezekiah prospered in all his works. (used his last years wisely?) 2Chron.32:25-26,31: Although when God tested Hezekiah, he became proud, he humbled himself again before God.
- 701 B.C.
Ancient Native Americans
- Lived c. the same time as Hezekiah. People traveled to the Americas around the ice age. Oceans were shallower and land was exposed to connect continents. Geologists believe that at one time people were able to cross from Alaska to Russia without a boat. The 4 groups of early people in N. America were: The Paleo Indians- little is known about them, lived as far back as 5,000 B.C., traveled a lot, had few belongings/lightweight tools, followed herds of animals for food/skins. The Archaic Indians- more settled, stayed in one place for a while, dried meat for storage, harvested grain to keep, had sculpting tools, wolf head masks, development of traditions.The Adena Indians- farmed land, fertilized with ashes, made pottery, built huge burial mounds: as high as 65'. made of earth. unaffected by weather over 2,000 years. still stand today. some held 1,000 bodies. tribe members may have been buried in their home.The Hopewell Indians- their name unknown, farmers, pipes, coolest animal pipes, trade, "mound builders": over 10,000, works of art, cone/animal shapes, 1,600' long, largest mound "great serpent mound" is snake shaped, turtle shaped mound in Wisconsin, hard to tell what they are unless you are up high in the air.
- 700 B.C.
The Rise of Athens and Sparta
- Hellenization: people acting like Greeks. The Myceneans ruled Greece for c.500 yrs.1200 B.C. - famine. poor trade. no art/creation. Dark ages. 700 B.C. Re-established Athens and Sparta. Greeks=Achaens=Hellens (Homer). "city-states"-small nations warred against each other. Sparta- one of the strongest city-states in Greece for a long time. Spent their lives training men, women, and children for battle. Athens- loved drama, music, art, and education. had the Acropolis "High city"-rocky hill overlooked Athens. The ruins of Parthenon (later built in 477 B.C.) stand today. Athens and Sparta, the two largest city states, never got along.
- 700-500 B.C.
- Evil. Became king of Judah (12 yrs. old). Son of Hezekiah. Listened to councilors- told him to go back to pagan worship. Worshiped idols in God's temple. Witchcraft. Sorcery. Sacrificed his son. Captured by Assyrian army. Taken to Babylon bound with hooks, and bronze fetters/chains. Prayed to the one true God- God heard his prayer and bought him back to Judah. Manasseh restored the wall of Jerusalem and destroyed the idols. The Judeans were rebellious but Manasseh repented.
- 691 B.C.
The Powers of Mesopotamia
- Power went back and forth between Assyrians and Babylonians. Nineveh- capital of Assyria. Assyrians- controlled all Mesopotamia (including Babylon) at the same time Manasseh was captured, warlike people, spoke Aramaic (same language Jesus spoke), Ashurbanipal- last great ruler of Assyria, built tremendous library in Nineveh. Babylon- chief city of Babylonia in Mesopotamia. Babylonians- good at math, made a counting system (where we got 60 min. in a hour, and the number of degrees in a circle from), controlled entire Mesopotamian region on and off during the 7th century B.C., Sumerians lived there first.
- 689-612 B.C.
- Manasseh's grandson. Became king at 8 yrs. old. Seeking God at 16 yrs. old. Destroyed idols. Burned the bones of evil priests. Restoring Solomon's temple- someone found first 5 books of the OT. Tore his clothes and wept before the Lord. Joy to have the law again. Sadness to see how much they had fallen away from God's laws. Gathered all of Judah to read out loud to them. Passover feast- 30,000 offerings, singers, priests, gatekeepers, lasted 7 days. Battle between Egypt and Carchemish- Josiah was shot by an arrow and died (was 39 yrs. old). Judah and Jerusalem mourned for him. Men and women speak of Josiah in their Lamentations, and made it a custom in Israel.
- 640 B.C.
Nahum and Zephaniah
- Both lived during Josiah's reign. Message - Jerusalem and surrounding nations.
- Nahum-"comfort". let the Godly know that the wicked would be destroyed by a flood, prophesied their destruction in the form of a poem. preached to Assyrians (brutal). Nineveh- capital of Assyria. walls-100' high, wide enough to have 3 chariots drive at the top side by side. 1,500 towers that stood 200' high. may have had almost a million people.
- Zephaniah- Hezekiah's great-grandson. Josiah's cousin. preached to those in Jerusalem who only outwardly gave tribute to the Lord. wrote about God's love for his people and the future of Nineveh.
- 630 B.C.
Prophesied during the fall of Judah to the Babylonians (Lamentations). lived during the reign of the last 5 kings of Judah (the last 4 after Josiah were evil). most Judeans did not listen- mocked and ridiculed him. Jeremiah compared them living behind false religions to a tattered, worthless, mildewed, waist cloth that was hidden behind a rock. smashed bottles together/threw pots on the ground- warning they would be broken by the Lord for their sins. silenced twice for preaching the truth. Used Baruch, a scribe, to write the words of the Lord. king Jehoiakim burned his scrolls. prison. exile. Locked in the stocks. "the weeping prophet". not taken into captivity in Babylon. moved to Egypt with the Jews who fled against God's will. there he died.
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