Philosophy

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moysyak_tanya
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Philosophy
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2010-08-25 01:41:53
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Philosophy Vocab
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  1. Logic
    Organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments.
  2. Argument
    A group of premises lead to a conclusion
  3. Statement
    A sentence that is either true or false. Typically a declarative sentence or a sentence component that could stand as a declarative sentence.
  4. Truth Values
    The 2 possible truth values of a statement are: Truth and Falsity
  5. Premises
    The statements that set forth the reasons or evidence.
  6. Conclusion
    The statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply.

    The statement that is claimed to follow from the premises.
  7. Conclusion Indicators
    • Therefore
    • Wherefore
    • Thus
    • Consequently
    • We may infer
    • Accordingly
    • We may conclude
    • It must be that
    • For this reason
    • So
    • Entails that
    • Hence
    • It follows that
    • Implies that
    • As a result
  8. Premise Indicators
    • Since
    • As indicated by
    • Because
    • For
    • In that
    • May be inferred from
    • As
    • Given that
    • Seeing that
    • For the reason that
    • Inasmuch as
    • Owing to
  9. Inference
    The reasoning process expressed by an argument (narrow sense)

    Inference - argument (broad sense)
  10. Proposition
    The meaning or information content of a statement. (Narrow sense)

    Proposition - statement (Broad sense)
  11. Syllogistic Logic
    Kind of logic in which the fundamental elements are terms, and arguments are evaluated as good or bad depending on how the terms are arranged in the argument.
  12. Modal Logic
    Kind of logic that involves such concepts as possibility, necessity, belief, and doubt.
  13. Factual Claim
    A claim that something is true; a claim that evidence or reasons are being presented.
  14. Inferential Claim
    The claim that the passage expresses a certain kind of reasoning process - that something supports or implies something or that something follows from something.

    • Explicit - argument (thus, since, because)
    • Implicit - no indicator words
  15. Warning
    Form of expression that is intended to put someone on guard against a dangerous or detrimental situation.
  16. Piece of advice
    Form of expression that makes a recommendation about some future decision or course of conduct.
  17. Statement of belief (Opinion)
    An expression about what someone happens to believe or think about something.
  18. Loosely Associated Statements
    Lack a claim that one of them is proved by the others.
  19. Report
    A group of statements that convey information about some topic or event.
  20. Expository passage
    A kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence.
  21. Illus
  22. Illustrations
    An expression involving one or more examples that is intended to show what something means or how it is done.
  23. Arguments from example
    An argument that purports to prove something by giving one or more examples of it.
  24. Explanation
    An expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon.
  25. Explanandum
    Statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained.
  26. Explanans
    The statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining.
  27. Conditional statement
    An "if...then..." statement
  28. Antecedent
    The component of a conditional statement immediately following the word "if"
  29. Consequent
    The component of a conditional statement following the word "then"
  30. Sufficient Condition
    The condition represented by the antecedent in a conditional statement.
  31. Necessary Condition
    The condition represented by the consequent in a conditional statement.
  32. Deductive Argument
    An argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusions to be false given that the premises are true.
  33. Inductive Argument
    An argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that the conclusion be false given the premises are true.
  34. Argument based on mathematics
    An argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement.
  35. Argument from definition
    An argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion.
  36. Categorical syllogism
    A syllogism (an argument consisting of exactly 2 premises and 1 conclusion) in which each statement begins with one of the words "all", "no", or "some".
  37. Hypothetical Syllogism
    Syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises.
  38. Disjunctive Syllogism
    Syllogism having a disjunctive statement for one of its premises.

    (an "either...or..." statement)
  39. Prediction
    An argument that proceeds from our knowledge of the past to a claim about the future.
  40. Argument from analogy
    An argument that depends on the existence of an analogy, or similarity, between 2 things or states of affairs.
  41. Generalization
    An argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a selected sample to some claim about the whole group.
  42. Argument from authority
    An argument that concludes something is true because a presumed expert or witness has said that it is.
  43. Argument based on signs
    An argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a sign to a claim about the thing or situation that the sign symbolizes.
  44. Casual Inference
    An argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect, or conversely from knowledge of an effect to a claim about a cause.
  45. Particular Statement
    One that makes a claim about one or more particular members of a class.
  46. General Statement
    Makes a claim about all the members of a class.
  47. Valid Deductive Argument
    An argument in which it's impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
  48. Invalid Deductive Argument
    A deductive argument in which it is possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
  49. Sound Argument
    A deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises.
  50. Unsound Argument
    A deductive argument that is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both.
  51. Strong Inductive Argument
    An inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true.
  52. Weak Inductive Argument
    An argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to.
  53. Cogent Argument
    An inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises
  54. Uncogent Argument
    An inductive argument that's weak, has 1 or more false premises, or both
  55. Argument Form
    An arrangement of words and letters such that the uniform substitution of terms or statements in place of the letters results in an argument.
  56. Substitution Instance
    An argument or statement that has the same form as a given argument form or statement form.
  57. Counterexample Method
    A method for providing invalidity - consists in constructing a substitution instance having true premises and false conclusion.
  58. Rational
    Truth or Falsity of a statement is found in the mind or brain.
  59. Necessary
    Can't be otherwise.

    (Either necessarily true or necessarily false)
  60. Tautology
    A necessarily true statement.
  61. Self - contradiction
    A necessarily false statement.
  62. A priori
    From before
  63. Analytic
    The grammatical subject is contained in the grammatical predicate.
  64. Empirical
    Truth or falsity of a statement is found in the world.
  65. Contingent
    The truth or falsity of a statement depends on the conditions that exist in the world.
  66. A posteriori
    From after
  67. Synthetic
    The grammatical subject is not contained in the grammatical predicate .
  68. Logical Possibility
    Any statement that does not contain a contradiction is logically possible

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