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What species makes up 3/4 of known animals?
Non living layer secreted by the epidermis
Shedding of the cuticle during growth
What is ecdysis?
A synonym for molting
What are the thin cuticles made of?
What are the thick cuticles made of?
Chitin & calcium
What is high diversity of arthropods due to?
High diversity of plants
How many arthropod species for every 1 mammal species?
Arthropod Features (6)
Diverse gas exchange organs
Complex life cycles
What are the multiple life stages separated by?
Protective exterior skeleton
Made of chitin
Molted to allow growth
Three layers of exoskeleton from top to bottom
Layers of protein and chitin
What does the insects epicuticle contain and why?
Contains wax to prevent desiccation (drying out on land)
What does the procuticle do?
Secretes the hardening calcium carbonate and pigmentation
What arthropod structures are built from the chitinous cuticle? (4)
Membranes for hearing
What controls ecdysis?
After being triggered by hormones, what layer produces a new cuticle?
Each segment has a pair of jointed appendages that specialize in what? (4)
Fusion & modification of segments that produces specialized body regions
What are some jointed appendages?
What do jointed appendages allow for?
Complex movement over the bottom or through water
What are limb segments?
Hollow levers with internal striated muscles
Appendages are highly specialized for what divisions of labor? (4)
Food handling and processing
What is used for oxygen transport in terrestrial arthropods?
How do aquatic arthropods respire?
Through various forms of lungs
What kind of circulation system do arthropods have?
Paired excretory organs
In insects for excretory purposes
How does a complex life history help increase diversity and population size of species?
Decreases competition between the adults and larvae
Marine Crustaceans (6)
What appendages do crustaceans have?
What appendages do Hexapods have?
Uniramous (unbranched) appendages
Feeding appendages of barnacles that move through the water for suspension feeding
Thick outer shell
Dungeness Crab (2)
West coast crab
Larval supply determines how much fisheries take each year
characteristics of the phylum arthropoda