same spot as the ovaries- in the fatty tissue at the caudal pole of each kidney
How do you position a dog for vaginal surgery?
reverse trendelenberg position- legs hanging off table, sternal recumbency, elevated table
What mass is associated with a heat cycle after ovarian remnant syndrome?
Why is it important to minimize uterine handling during intrauterine insemination?
too much handling/trauma will cause release of prostaglandins--> insemination won't be successful
What are surgical indications for C-section? (6)
prolonged gestation (>70 days from breeding), maternal toxemia, unproductive/inappropriate labor, vaginal d/c (green/black, hemorrhagic, purulent), fetal death, elective
When do you usually opt for elective C-section? (5)
nulliparous bitch > 6 years old, >2 pups or >8 pups, brachycephalic breeds, history of dystocia in the bitch, limited emergency veterinary care in the area
When a bitch is close to whelping, her serum progesterone is __________.
What are clinical signs of pregnancy toxemia? (4)
weakness, depression, seizures, coma
Describe the cardiovascular effects of pregnancy. (4)
increased plasma volume, decreased BP, intolerant of hypotension, demand of fetuses (increased oxygen consumption, increase CO2 production)
Describe the respiratory effects of pregnancy. (3)
decreased lung volume (not as much space), hypoxia, demand of fetuses (increase oxygen consumption, increase CO2 production) [consider pre-oxygenation of patient before C-section]
Describe the GI effects of pregnancy. (3)
gastric reflux, delayed gastric emptying, LES relaxation
Describe the CNS effects of pregnancy and the implications of this.
decreased minimal alveolar conc (MAC) inhalation anesthetics- its harder to keep a pregnant animal under
If you're going to biopsy a uterus to determine the cause of a dead/macerated fetus, you must...
biopsy at the site of placental attachment for the dead fetus.
What do we usually do for pain management post- C-section?
injectable narcotics; NSAIDs and tramadol not labelled for lactation
In which species is penile erection NOT essential for function?
dogs- os penis facilitates vaginal entry without full erection
Any congenital malformation of the genital system such that gender is ambiguous.
Gonads of one gender and reproductive phenotype of the opposite; named based on gonads.
The _________ regulates the distance of the testes from the body to control temperature.
The cremaster m. originates from the __________.
internal abdominal oblique muscle
The crura of the penis arise from the _________ and are _________, covered by __________.
ischial tuberosities; corpus cavernosum; ischiocavernosus m.
The bulbus glandis is continuous with the ___________ and helps to establish the _______.
corpus spongiosum; "coital tie"
The _________ is the apex of the penis.
pars longa glandis
What is the blood supply to the penis?
internal and external pudendal aa. and vv.
What are the 3 branches of the external pudendal a. that supply the penis?
artery of the bulb, deep a. of the penis, dorsal a. of the penis
What is the somatic nerve supply to the penis?
What is the parasympathetic nerve supply to the penis?
What is the sympathetic nerve supply to the penis?
The complete tubular sheath covering the pars longa glandis and part of the bulbus glandis n the non-erect penis.
The prepuce is lined by ___________.
stratified squamous epithelium
The haired outer surface of the prepuce.
The _________ from the preputial ostium to fornix, where the prepuce is continuous with the skin of the glans.
The strip of cutaneous trunci m. that extends from the xiphoid to the dorsal wall of the prepuce.
What is the purpose of mullerian inhibiting hormone in development?
causes regression of oviducts, uterus, cranial vagina
What is the purpose of testosterone in fetal development?
stimulates formation of the epididymis, ductus deferens, penis, prostate, scrotum
What are clinical signs of persistent penile frenulum? (4)
urine stream in odd directions (puppy urinating on hind feet), inability to extrude penis, pain associated with penile engorgement, locking prepuce/discharge
How do you treat persistent penile frenulum?
penile extrusion and resection of constricting band
Abnormal termination of the urethra ventral and caudal to normal orifice.
What are possible treatment options for hypospadias?
penile amputation, urethrostomy, preputial reconstruction, castration (familial in boston terriers)
Hypospadias is failure of...
fusion of urethral/genital folds (often concurrent cryptorchidism), failure of ventral fusion of urethra/penis/prepuce
Abnormally small preputial opening, causing urine pooling in prepuce, LUT signs, and inability to extrude penis.
Describe the surgical treatment of phimosis.
wedge resection of preputial orifice
Presence of an engorged or edematous penis that cannot be retracted into prepuce, potentially leading to impairment of venous drainage, exposure desiccation, self trauma, necrosis, urethral obstruction,and gangrene.
Describe the treatment of paraphimosis. (6)
u cath, cleanse and debride, reduce swelling, replace penis, extrude penis daily for 7-14 days and apply antibiotic cream, +/- surgical enlargement of preputial orifice/penile amputation
Persistent penile engorgement without associated sexual excitement, most commonly caused by spinal cord lesions.