What can cause acute bovine pulmonary emphysema (interstitial pneumonia)? (3)
fog fever (lush grass), moldy sweet potatoes, perilla ketones
Fog fever clinical signs can mimic ___________; the only way to differentiate them is to _________.
hypomagnesmia (grass tetany); take a biopsy
What causes fog fever ABPE? (pathogenesis)
lush green pastures in fall--> fermentation of L-tryptophan in rumen to 3-methylindole (3-MI)--> 3-MI to lung, metabolized by Clara cells to reactive intermediates--> cell necrosis--> lung inflammation and edema
What are the classic lesions associated with ABPE? (5)
edema, diffuse alveolar epithelial necrosis, hyaline membrane formation, type II alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia, +/- multi-nucleate giant cells
What clinical findings are associated with ABPE? (6)
severe dyspnea, expiratory grunting, foam from mouth/nostrils, head/neck extended, soft respiratory sounds no auscultation, NO COUGHING
Describe treatment for ABPE. (2)
palliative- Banamine, monensin or lasalocid (bind tryptophan)
What do you see on histo with atypical interstitial pneumonia?
multi-nucleate giant cells (syncytia) [BRSV]
Why do moldy sweet potatos cause ABPE?
4-ipomeanol is a potent lung toxicant
What causes verminous pneumonia?
lung worms- Dictyocaulus viviparous
Verminous pneumonia is __(2)__ pneumonia.
alveolar and interstitial
Describe the life cycle of D. viviparous.
[direct life cycle] adults live in airways and lay eggs--> larvae coughed up and swallowed--> larvae passed in feces--> L3 on grass are eaten
When do you start seeing clinical signs with D. viviparous?
when larvae penetrate alveoli
D. viviparous causes ______________ consolidation of pneumonia.
What are clinical signs of lungworms? (5)
coughing, tachypnea, anorexia, harsh lung sounds on auscultation, expiratory grunting
What is common after treatment of lungworms?
re-infection syndrome when cattle are introduced to infected pastures
How do you diagnose lung worms? (2)
Baermann sedimentation of feces, trans-tracheal wash