Cattle2- BRD

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Mawad
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311813
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Cattle2- BRD
Updated:
2015-11-24 09:01:11
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vetmed cattle2
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vetmed cattle2
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  1. What viruses are associated with BRD? (5)
    BVDV, IBR (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis), PI3 (parainfluenza virus 3), BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus), coronavirus
  2. What bacteria are associated with BRD? (5)
    Manheimmia hemolytica, Pasteruella multocida, Histophilus somnus, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis
  3. What are the periods of highest incidence of BRD? (3)
    birth to weaning, weaning to market, adult diseases
  4. How does stress predispose to BRD?
    stress induces cortisol, a major homeostatic hormone--> reduces innate/acquired immune responses
  5. What bacteria are commensal to the upper respiratory tract? (3)
    M. hemolytica, P. multocida, H. somnus
  6. What bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory tract?
    A. pyogenes
  7. What are predisposing factors for BRD? (8)
    adverse environment, transportation, surgery, co-mingling, weaning, processing procedures, feed type/quality, dusty environment
  8. Calves with _________ are at the greatest risk for pneumonia.
    diarrhea
  9. What nutritional deficiencies predispose cows and weaned calves to BRD? (8)
    Cu, Zn, Se, Mn, Fe, Vit A, Vit D, Vit E
  10. What are the functional consequences of ruminant lung anatomy? (3)
    minimal lung unit interdependence, no collateral ventilation, well-developed inflammatory response (limited extension)
  11. What are the major types of respiratory disease? (4)
    Neonatal diarrhea/sepsis/bronchopneumonia,   Bronchopneumonia (stress/immunity/environment), metastatic pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia
  12. Neonates often get pneumonia secondary to... (5)
    FPTI, Low IgG-->LPS, sepsis, diarrhea
  13. Neonates that are tube fed or bottle fed are at risk for _________.
    aspiration pneumonia
  14. Bronchopneumonia is generally a(n) ___________ that is initiated by ____________.
    secondary bacterial infection; viral infection
  15. P. multocida causes _____________ that affect the __________ lung lobes, causing...
    chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia; cranioventral; firm, sharp areas of demarcation.
  16. "Shipping fever" is _____________ that affects the __________ lung lobes, causing __________.
    acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia; bilateral, cranioventral; interlobular edema
  17. Describe Mycoplasma pneumonia. (5)
    chronic, lymphoid hyperplasia, caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia, nodular, spreads to ears (head tilt)
  18. Viral pneumonia has a ________ incubation period prior to bacterial infection/proliferation.
    3-5 day
  19. How can an older cow get aspiration pneumonia?
    milk fever-down- aspirates rumen content; milk fever- treated with oral calcium/energy- some gets in trachea
  20. How do you treat aspiration pneumonia? (3)
    Dexamethasone OR NSAIDs (reduce inflammation), broad-spectrum antimicrobials (Ceftiofur, oxytet), supportive care (fluids, nutrition, electrolytes)
  21. What conditions can often be correlated to embolic pneumonia? (5)
    mastitis, metritis, rumenitis/liver abscess, endocarditis, lameness
  22. With metastatic pneumonia, usually there are repeated episodes of _________, and ___________ follows--> __________ develop in the __________, sending it into circulation and to the lungs.
    rumenitis; liver abscessation; septic thrombi; caudal vena cava
  23. Metastatic pneumonia is manifested as... (3)
    respiratory disease, weight loss, and thoracic pain.
  24. Metastatic pneumonia causes... (3)
    anemia, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), and melena.
  25. Describe the treatment of metastatic pneumonia.
    [unrewarding] long-term penicillin; once bleeding is evident, there is no point in treating her
  26. What are causes of interstitial pneumonia?  (5)
    atypical feedlot interstitial pneumonia, acute bovine pulmonary emphysema, chronic fibrosing, parasitic pneumonia, toxic gases
  27. What can cause acute bovine pulmonary emphysema (interstitial pneumonia)? (3)
    fog fever (lush grass), moldy sweet potatoes, perilla ketones
  28. Fog fever clinical signs can mimic ___________; the only way to differentiate them is to _________.
    hypomagnesmia (grass tetany); take a biopsy
  29. What causes fog fever ABPE? (pathogenesis)
    lush green pastures in fall--> fermentation of L-tryptophan in rumen to 3-methylindole (3-MI)--> 3-MI to lung, metabolized by Clara cells to reactive intermediates--> cell necrosis--> lung inflammation and edema
  30. What are the classic lesions associated with ABPE? (5)
    edema, diffuse alveolar epithelial necrosis, hyaline membrane formation, type II alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia, +/- multi-nucleate giant cells
  31. What clinical findings are associated with ABPE? (6)
    severe dyspnea, expiratory grunting, foam from mouth/nostrils, head/neck extended, soft respiratory sounds no auscultation, NO COUGHING
  32. Describe treatment for ABPE. (2)
    palliative- Banamine, monensin or lasalocid (bind tryptophan)
  33. What do you see on histo with atypical interstitial pneumonia?
    multi-nucleate giant cells (syncytia) [BRSV]
  34. Why do moldy sweet potatos cause ABPE?
    4-ipomeanol is a potent lung toxicant
  35. What causes verminous pneumonia?
    lung worms- Dictyocaulus viviparous
  36. Verminous pneumonia is __(2)__ pneumonia.
    alveolar and interstitial
  37. Describe the life cycle of D. viviparous.
    [direct life cycle] adults live in airways and lay eggs--> larvae coughed up and swallowed--> larvae passed in feces--> L3 on grass are eaten
  38. When do you start seeing clinical signs with D. viviparous?
    when larvae penetrate alveoli
  39. D. viviparous causes ______________ consolidation of pneumonia.
    caudoventral
  40. What are clinical signs of lungworms? (5)
    coughing, tachypnea, anorexia, harsh lung sounds on auscultation, expiratory grunting
  41. What is common after treatment of lungworms?
    re-infection syndrome when cattle are introduced to infected pastures
  42. How do you diagnose lung worms? (2)
    Baermann sedimentation of feces, trans-tracheal wash
  43. How do you treat D. viviparous? (3)
    Levamisole phosphate, Ivermectins, Benzimidazoles

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