Patho Chapters 1 & 2

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theshackfam
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Patho Chapters 1 & 2
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2010-09-02 14:14:12
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Chapters 1 & 2 Vocab
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  1. Characteristics of Disease
    A disease is a disturbance of structure or function. They fall into two basic categories:

    • 1. Structural changes – organic disease
    • 2. Morphologic abnormalities – functional disease
  2. Symptom
    Subjective manifestations of a disease. These cannot be measured. An example would be pain.
  3. Sign of a disease
    Objective manifestations of a disease. These can be measured. An example is a fever.
  4. Asymptomatic
    A disease that causes the patient no discomfort.
  5. Symptomatic
    A disease that is demonstrating signs and symptoms
  6. Etiology
    The cause of a disease or illness
  7. Pathogenesis
    The manner by which a disease develops
  8. Congenital and Hereditary Diseases
    These are diseases that are caused by:

    • 1. Genetic abnormality
    • 2. Intrauterine injury
    • 3. Interaction of genetic and environmental factors
  9. Inflammatory Diseases
    Causes by bacteria or other microbiological agents as the first step in the infection process. They can also be caused by allergic reactions and they can be autoimmune diseases.
  10. Degenerative Diseases
    Diseases involving the deterioration of body parts e.g. arthritis
  11. Metabolic Diseases
    A disease where an area of the body malfunctions e.g. diabetes
  12. Neoplastic Diseases
    Cancers/Tumors that fall into 2 categories

    • 1. Benign
    • 2. Malignant
  13. List the classifications of diseases
    • 1. Congentital and Hereditary
    • 2. Inflammatory
    • 3. Degenerative
    • 4. Metabolic
    • 5. Neoplastic
  14. List the parts of an accurate clinical history
    • 1. History of current illness
    • 2. Past medical history
    • 3. Family History
    • 4. Social History
    • 5. Review of systems
  15. Parts of history of current illness
    • 1. Details of severity of symptoms
    • 2. Time of onset
    • 3. Character of the patient's symptoms and pain
  16. Parts of medical history
    • 1. details the patients general health
    • 2. details previous injuries and illnesses
  17. Parts of family history
    Health of patients immediate family
  18. Part of social history
    • 1. patents occupation
    • 2. patients habits and sexual behavior
    • 3. patients alcohol and tobacco consumption
  19. Review of systems
    Inquires about the symptoms one at a time to obtain information the patient might not have remembered or did not think was important.
  20. Physical examination by nurse includes:
    • 1. Height
    • 2. Weight
    • 3. Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate
    • 4. Body Temperature
  21. Physical examination by doctor includes:
    • 1. Exam of ears, nose, mouth, eyes and glands in the neck
    • 2. observations of heart sounds
    • 3. observations of breathing sounds
    • 4. examination of the abdomen
    • 5. examination of the limbs
  22. Types of diagnostic tests and procedures
    • 1. Clinical Lab Tests
    • 2. Measurements of electrical activity
    • 3. Radioisotope testing
    • 4. Endoscopy
    • 5. Ultrasound
    • 6. X-rays
    • 7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • 8. Positron Emission Tomography
    • 9. Cytologic and Histologic
  23. List 7 types of endoscopy tests and what they are used for:
    • 1. esophagoscope: view the esophagus
    • 2. bronchoscope: view the bronchioles
    • 3. cytoscope: view the bladder
    • 4. sigmoidoscope: view the sigmoid colon
    • 5. colonscope: view the entire colon
    • 6. laproscope: view pelvic organs
  24. Metaplasia
    The TYPE of cell changes

  25. Cellular Dysplasia
    Cells vary in SIZE and SHAPE

  26. Hypertrophy
    Cells change in SIZE
  27. Hyperplasia
    Cells change in NUMBER
  28. Neoplasia
    Cells lose their normal metabolism and become tumors. This often follows severe dysplasia.
  29. Types of cell injuries:
    • 1. Cell swelling
    • 2. Fatty change
  30. Cell swelling
    injured cell is unable to transport sodium out of cell. sodium and water then diffuse into the cell causing it to swell.
  31. Fatty Change
    The enzyme systems that metabolize fat become impaired resulting in the accumulation of fat in the cell.
  32. Cell Necrosis
    The structural changes to a cell following the the irreparable damage and death of a cell. All necrotic cell are dead but not all dead cells are necrotic.
  33. Apoptosis
    Programmed cell death when a cell reached the end of its lifespan. If the regulatory mechanism fails there may be an accumulation of an excessive number of an excessice number of cells or tumor.
  34. Manifestations Related to State of Disease
    • 1. Symptomatic - with symptoms and/or signs
    • 2. Asymptomatic - without symptoms and/or signs
  35. Disease
    A disturbance of body structure or function
  36. Lesions
    Structural Changes
  37. Organic Disease
    • • Associated with structural changes, lesions.
    • • Examined through naked eye, gross examination
    • • Or through microscope, histologic examination
  38. Increased Enzyme Synthesis
    Adaptive response whe cells are called upon to inactivate or detoxify drugs or chemicals
  39. Type of Cell Adaptation
    • 1. Atrophy
    • 2. Hypertrophy
    • 3. Hyperplasia
    • 4. Metaplasia
    • 5. Dysplasia
    • 6. Neoplasia
    • 7. Increase in Enzyme Synthesis
  40. Types of Treaments
    • Specific - exerts highly specific and favorable effects on the basic course of the disease

    • Symptomatic - makes patient more comfortable be alleviating symptom but does not influence the course of the undelying disease
  41. Diagnosis
    Determination of the nature and cause of a patient's illness by a physician based on:

    • 1. Patient's symptoms
    • 2. Patient's signs
    • 3. Laboratory results
    • 4. Other diagnostic procedures
  42. Prognosis
    An opinion concerning the the eventual outcome of the disease
  43. Treatment
    Measures to relieve symptoms or cure disease
  44. Diagnostic Process
    • 1. Clinical History
    • 2. Physical Exam
    • 3. Differential Diagnosis
  45. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Consideration of various diseases or conditions that would fit the clinical or physical findings.

    2. More than one diagnosis may need to be considered

    3. Consideration of a number of diseases characterized by the patient's symptoms and signs

    4. List of diagnostic possibilities may be narrowed by lab test or other procedures

    5. Consultation may be sought

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